The way in which computers manage data has come a long method over the last few decades. Today’s customers take because that granted the countless benefits uncovered in a database system. However, the wasn’t the long ago that computer systems relied on a much much less elegant and also costly method to data management referred to as the file-based system.

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File-based System

One way to keep details on a computer is to save it in long-term files. A firm system has a variety of application programs; every of castle is designed to manipulate data files. These application programs have actually been created at the request the the customers in the organization. Brand-new applications are added come the system as the require arises. The system just described is called the file-based system.

Consider a timeless banking system that uses the file-based mechanism to control the organization data displayed in figure 1.1. Together we have the right to see, there are different departments in the bank. Each has actually its own applications the manage and manipulate various data files. Because that banking systems, the programs may be used to debit or credit an account, find the balance of an account, include a new mortgage loan and generate monthly statements.

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Figure 1.1. Instance of a file-based mechanism used by financial institutions to regulate data.

Disadvantages of the file-based approach

Using the file-based device to keep organizational information has a number of disadvantages. Listed below are 5 examples.

Data redundancy

Often, in ~ an organization, files and applications are developed by different programmers from miscellaneous departments over lengthy periods the time. This deserve to lead come data redundancy, a case that wake up in a database when a field needs to it is in updated in more than one table. This practice can lead come several difficulties such as:

Inconsistency in data formatThe same details being kept in several different places (files)Data inconsistency, a case where various copies of the same data room conflicting, wastes storage an are and duplicates effortData isolation

Data isolation is a residential or commercial property that identify when and how transforms made through one operation end up being visible to various other concurrent users and also systems. This issue occurs in a concurrency situation. This is a trouble because:

It is an overwhelming for new applications come retrieve the appropriate data, which can be save on computer in miscellaneous files.Integrity problems

Problems with data integrity is one more disadvantage of making use of a file-based system. It describes the maintenance and assurance that the data in a database are correct and consistent. Factors to think about when addressing this worry are:

Data values have to satisfy particular consistency border that are specified in the applications programs.It is an overwhelming to make changes to the applications programs in order to enforce new constraints.Security problems

Security deserve to be a problem with a file-based technique because: 

There space constraints concerning accessing privileges.Application needs are included to the device in one ad-hoc path so that is daunting to enforce constraints.Concurrency access

Concurrency is the ability of the database to enable multiple users accessibility to the same document without adversely affecting transaction processing. A file-based device must manage, or prevent, concurrency through the applications programs. Typically, in a file-based system, when an application opens a file, that paper is locked. This way that nobody else has access to the paper at the very same time.

In database systems, concurrency is controlled thus allowing multiple users accessibility to the exact same record. This is vital difference in between database and file-based systems.

Database Approach

The challenges that arise from utilizing the file-based system have prompted the advance of a brand-new approach in managing large amounts of business information dubbed the database approach.

Databases and also database modern technology play vital role in most areas where computer systems are used, including business, education and medicine. To understand the fundamentals of database systems, we will start by presenting some an easy concepts in this area.

Role that databases in business

Everybody uses a database in part way, even if that is just to keep information about their friends and also family. The data can be created down or save in a computer by utilizing a word-processing routine or it can be conserved in a spreadsheet. However, the best method to save data is by using database monitoring software. This is a an effective software tool that permits you come store, manipulate and also retrieve data in a selection of different ways.

Most providers keep monitor of customer info by storing the in a database. This data might include customers, employees, products, orders or anything else that assists the organization with its operations.

The meaning of data

Data are factual info such as dimensions or statistics around objects and also concepts. We usage data for discussions or as part of a calculation. Data have the right to be a person, a place, one event, an action or any type of one that a variety of things. A single fact is an aspect of data, or a data element.

If data space information and information is what we space in the organization of functioning with, you can start to see where you could be storing it. Data can be stored in:

Filing cabinetsSpreadsheetsFoldersLedgersListsPiles of documents on your desk

All of these items store information, and so as well does a database. Since of the mechanical nature that databases, castle have terrific power to control and procedure the info they hold. This can make the details they residence much much more useful for your work.

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With this expertise of data, we deserve to start come see just how a tool with the capacity to store a collection of data and also organize it, command a rapid search, retrieve and also process, could make a difference to just how we deserve to use data. This book and the chapters that follow room all around managing information.