Keynes rejected the timeless conclusion of full employment in a capitalist economy. The an international depression the the 1930s provided birth come Keynesian economics.

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The whole capitalist civilization now experienced massive unemploy­ment problem. Keynes now forcefully said that a capitalist economic climate can never reach complete employment.

According come Keynes, complete employment situation is a sort of astrological coincidence.


What is truth is underemploy­ment. Thus, Keynes arisen his under­employment equilibrium hypothesis quite than full employment equilibrium. If, at the going wage rate, world do not find employment a instance of joblessness emerges. Such unemployment has actually been dubbed ‘involuntary unemployment’ by Keynes.

In establishing his concept of involuntary unemployment, Keynes rubbish the classical presumption of wage-price flexibility. Money wages space rigid or inflexible in the bottom direction. They are flexible, however, in the upward direction. There room two factors for fairy inflexibility. First is the money illusion. Second is the institutional reason. Trade unions protect against wage rate from falling. Thus, any type of wage reduced will it is in resisted. Or wage price cannot fall listed below a specific level. However, there is nothing which stays clear of money wages from rising. Once complete employment is reached, wages might rise.

This Keynesian argument suggests that labour supply function, uneven the classic system, is a role of the money wages, rather than genuine wages, i.e.,

SL = f (W) … (10.16)


The Keynesian work supply duty is suspect to be a duty of money wage rate. However, his labour supply curve has two parts. Due to the fact that of the rigid wage rate, labour supply curve is perfect elastic. Let us assume the there is a addressed wage, W. The associated labour supply curve is horizontal in this region. Above this fairy rate, money salaries are cost-free to rise. Thus, the work supply curve (SL) in this region must be hopeful sloping. This two aspects of work supply curve have been presented in Fig. 3.5.

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Labour need curve, however, in the Keynesian system, is suspect to it is in negatively pertained to the genuine wage rate. D, curve shows this relationship.

As usual, equilibrium in the labour mar­ket is developed when labour need curve intersects the work supply curve at its hori­zontal portion. Thus, suggest E describes under­employment equilibrium. Corresponding equilibrium actual wage price is (W/P)E. At this wage rate, LF civilization are willing to work while LE civilization are work the distinction be­tween the 2 (LE – LF or EF) measures invol­untary unemployment. Prefer the classical sys­tem, there are no automatic pressures in an economy to mention full employed staff or come restore complete employment equilibrium in the Keynesian system.


According come Keynes, wage rigidity is the reason of involuntary unemployment. This method that a cost-free enterprise capitalist economy constantly fails come reach full employment since of fairy rigidity. He additionally gave two various other rea­sons—(i) liquidity trap, and also (ii) attention inelas­ticity of investment—for the fail of a capi­talist economic climate to reach the state of full em­ployment.

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Keynesian employment theory, however, provides two species of equilibria—full employ­ment equilibrium and underemployment equilibrium.


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