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Bone markings are invaluable come the identification of separation, personal, instance bones and also bony piece and aid in the expertise of functional and also evolutionary anatomy. They are offered by clinicians and also surgeons, specifically orthopedists, radiologists, forensic scientists, detectives, osteologists, and also anatomists. Return the untrained eye might overlook bone markings together contours the the bone, they space not together simple. Bone markings play critical role in human and animal anatomy and also physiology. The use of bone markings arrays from permitting joints to slide past each various other or lock skeleton in place, giving structural support to muscle and connective tissue, and providing circumferential stabilization and protection come nerves, vessels, and also connective tissue. Knowledge the importance of bone markings offers a brand-new appreciation and understanding of bony anatomy and also its useful relationships through soft tissues.<1><2><3><4><5>

Common Bone Markings

Angles - spicy bony angulations that might serve as bony or soft tissue attachments but often are offered for precise anatomical description. Examples encompass the superior, inferior, and acromial angles of the scapula and the superior, inferior, lateral angles of the occiput.

Body - This usually refers to the largest, most prominent segment the bone. Examples include the diaphysis or shaft of long bones favor the femur and also humerus.

Condyle - refers to a large prominence, which regularly provides structural support to the overlying hyaline cartilage. It bear the brunt of the force exerted indigenous the joint. Examples incorporate the knee share (hinge joint), developed by the femoral lateral and also medial condyles, and also the tibial lateral and medial condyles. Additionally, the occiput has actually an occipital condyle i beg your pardon articulates through atlas(C1) and also accounts for about 25 degrees of cervical flexion and extension. 

Crest - A raised or prominent component of the sheet of a bone. Crests are often the sites where connective organization attaches muscle to bone. The iliac crest is discovered on the ilium.

Diaphysis - refers to the main part of the shaft of a long bone. Lengthy bones, consisting of the femur, humerus, and tibia, all have actually a shaft.

Epicondyle - A prestige that sit atop of a condyle. The epicondyle attaches muscle and connective organization to bone, providing support come this musculoskeletal system. Examples incorporate the femoral medial and also lateral epicondyles and also humeral medial and lateral epicondyles.

Epiphysis - The articulating segment the a bone, commonly at the bone"s proximal and also distal poles. That usually has actually a bigger diameter than the obelisk (diaphysis). The epiphysis is an essential for bone growth because it sits surrounding to the physeal line, also known together the expansion plate.

Facet - A smooth, flat surface that forms a share with one more flat bone or another facet, together producing a gliding joint. Examples can be viewed in the side joints the the vertebrae, which enable for flexion and also extension of the spine. 

Fissure - An open up slit in a bone that usually dwellings nerves and also blood vessels. Examples incorporate superior and inferior orbital fissure.

Foramen - A hole with which nerves and blood ship pass. Examples incorporate supraorbital foramen, infraorbital foramen, and mental foramen ~ above the cranium.

Fossa - A shallow depression in the bone surface. Right here it may receive an additional articulating bone or act come support brain structures. Examples incorporate trochlear fossa, posterior, middle, and also anterior cranial fossa.

Groove - A furrow in the bone surface that runs along the length of a vessel or nerve, providing an are to prevent compression by nearby muscle or external forces. Examples incorporate a radial groove and the groove for the transverse sinus.

Head - A rounded, prominent extension of bone the forms part of a joint. The is separated from the shaft of the bone through the neck. The head is usually extended in hyaline cartilage inside a synovial capsule. It is the key articulating surface with the surrounding bone, developing a "ball-and-socket" joint.

Margin - The leaf of any flat bone. It have the right to be offered to specify a bone"s borders accurately. For example, the sheet of the temporal bone articulating with the occipital bone is dubbed the occipital margin the the temporal bone. And also vice versa, the edge of the occipital bone articulating with the temporal bone is dubbed the temporal margin that the occipital bone.

Meatus - A tube-like channel that extends in ~ the bone, which may administer passage and also protection come nerves, vessels, and also even sound. Examples incorporate external acoustic meatus and also internal auditory meatus.

Neck - The segment between the head and also the shaft of a bone. The is frequently demarcated indigenous the head by the existence of the physeal line in pediatric patients and also the physeal scar (physeal line remnant) in adults. It is frequently separated into the surgical neck and anatomical neck. The anatomical neck, which might represent the old epiphyseal plate, is frequently demarcated by its attachments to capsular ligaments. The operation neck is often an ext distal and also is demarcated by the website on the neck that is most commonly fractured. Because that example, in the humerus, the anatomical neck runs obliquely from the better tuberosity to simply inferior to the humeral head. The surgical neck runs horizontally and also a couple of centimeters distal come the humeral tuberosities.

Notch - A depression in a bone i m sorry often, but not always, provides stabilization to an nearby articulating bone. The articulating bone will slide into and out of the notch, guiding the range of motion of the joint. Examples include the trochlear notch top top the ulna, radial notch the the ulna, suprasternal notch, and also the mandibular notch.

Ramus - The curved component of a bone that offers structural assistance to the remainder of the bone. Examples include the superior/inferior pubic ramus and ramus of the mandible.

Sinus - A cavity within any organ or tissue. Examples encompass paranasal sinuses and dural venous sinuses.

Spinous process - A raised, sharp elevation that bone wherein muscles and connective organization attach. It is various than a normal process in that a spinous procedure is more pronounced.

Trochanter - A large prominence on the next of the bone. Some of the biggest muscle groups and also most thick connective tissues affix to the trochanter. The many notable instances are the greater and lesser trochanters of the femur.

Tuberosity - A moderate importance where muscles and connective tissues attach. Its function is comparable to the of a trochanter. Examples include the tibial tuberosity, deltoid tuberosity, and ischial tuberosity.

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Tubercle - A small, rounded prominence where connective organization attach. Examples include the greater and also lesser tubercle the the humerus.