Choosing a pricing objective and associated strategy is vital function the the organization owner and an integral part of the business arrangement or planning process.

You are watching: For convenience, pricing objectives can be divided into three categories, which are:


Choosing a pricing objective and also associated strategy is an important function of the organization owner and also an integral part of the business plan or to plan process.

It is much more than just calculating your price of production and also tacking on a markup. An additional article (see “ What do I Charge?") debated how to recognize product prices. This publishing will explain the plenty of pricing goals that service owners might use. When a pricing objective has been chosen, a pricing strategy the meets the pricing objective must additionally be selected. Benefits and flaw of the objectives and also strategies will also be discussed.

Pricing is among the major components of your marketing plan, i beg your pardon is a component of a full organization plan. Assigning product price is a strategy activity. The price you assign will impact how consumers view your product and also whether lock will acquisition it. Price likewise helps differentiate your product from those of her competitors. However, the price you assign should be in line with your various other marketing strategies and the product attributes. Even if it is or not you construct a officially marketing plan, performing several of the research vital for a marketing arrangement prior to identify the pricing tactics you will implement is important. The knowledge acquired from the research will assist in assigning suitable prices come your assets or services—prices the reflect the quality and also attributes your product supplies the consumer. Her marketing goals and knowledge that the industry, your competition, and the market are essential. Right here are some inquiries you"ll need to think about to aid determine objectives and also strategies the will add to the success of your business:

What mix of products are girlfriend offering? The mix of assets you have accessible will either border or expand the pricing strategies available for you to use. If you feel the a details strategy would help you in achieving her pricing objective, climate you may want to consider making alters to your product mix.Who or what is your target market? The demographics of her target market will help you identify suitable pricing objectives and strategies. Space target customers interested in value, quality, or short cost?Are friend distributing your product everyone or retail? Your technique of product circulation can affect the pricing objectives and also strategies you are able to use. Straight marketing offers you more control 보다 wholesale marketing end how assets are grouped, displayed, and priced.What is the approximated life cycle of her product/service? The life bicycle of your product can impact your choice of pricing objectives and also strategies. With a brief estimated life cycle, it will certainly be necessary to sell greater quantities the product or generate larger profit margins 보다 with products where the life bicycle is longer. Much longer life cycles give you an ext time to attain your pricing objective.What is the projected need for the product? When need for a product is expected to be high, friend have more flexibility in picking pricing strategies due to the fact that customers are much less likely come be concerned with price and also packaging due to the fact that they really want your product. Because that example, think about the prices world are willing to pay when new video game consoles debut.Are there various other entities, such as the government, that may dictate the price variety for her product? some products, such as milk, have government-imposed regulation limiting the price that deserve to be charged. Be familiar with any pricing regulation that use to your market or product.

Certain combinations of one objective and also strategies occupational together while other combinations contradict every other. In ~ the finish of this publication you will discover a diagram depicting pricing objectives and also the methods that deserve to be to work to satisfy each objective. You"ll notification that some strategies have the right to be employed with much more than one objective.

Pricing Objectives

Many pricing objectives are obtainable for cautious consideration. The one you select will guide your choice of pricing strategy. You"ll need to have a firm understanding of product attributes and the sector to decision which pricing target to employ. Your an option of an objective does no tie you to it for all time. As business and market problems change, adjusting her pricing objective might be important or appropriate.

How execute you select a pricing objective? Pricing missions are selected through the business and financial purposes in mind. Aspects of your business plan can overview your choices of a pricing objective and also strategies. Take into consideration your business"s mission statement and also plans for the future. If among your all at once business goals is to become a leader in terms of the industry share the your product has, then you"ll desire to take into consideration the quantity maximization pricing objective together opposed to the survival pricing objective. If your service mission is to be a leader in your industry, you may want to consider a quality management pricing objective. On the various other hand, benefit margin maximization may be the most proper pricing target if your business arrangement calls for development in production in the close to future because you will need funding for facilities and also labor. Part objectives, such as partial price recovery, survival, and also status quo, will be offered when market problems are negative or unstable, when first entering a market, or when the service is experiencing difficult times (for example, bankruptcy or restructuring). Short definitions of the pricing goals are listed below.

Partial cost recovery—a firm that has sources of income other 보다 from the sale of assets may decide to carry out this pricing objective, which has the advantage of offering customers v a top quality product in ~ a expense lower than expected. Rivals without various other revenue streams come offset reduced prices will most likely not appreciate using this target for assets in straight competition with one another. Therefore, this pricing objective is best reserved because that special instances or products.

Profit margin maximization—seeks come maximize the per-unit profit margin the a product. This objective is typically applied when the total number of units marketed is supposed to it is in low. Benefit maximization—seeks to garner the greatest dollar amount in profits. This objective is not necessarily tied to the objective of benefit margin maximization.

Revenue maximization—seeks come maximize revenue native the sale of products without regard come profit. This objective can be beneficial when presenting a brand-new product into the market with the purposes of farming market share and also establishing irreversible customer base.

Quality leadership—used to signal product quality to the customer by placing prices on commodities that convey your quality.

Quantity maximization—seeks come maximize the variety of items sold. This objective may be chosen if you have an underlying score of taking benefit of economies of range that might be realized in the manufacturing or sales arenas.

Status quo—seeks to save your product prices in line through the exact same or comparable products available by your competitors to avoid starting a price battle or to keep a stable level that profit created from a certain product.

Survival—put right into place in situations where a business needs come price at a level that will certainly just enable it to remain in business and also cover necessary costs. For a short time, the score of making a profit is collection aside because that the score of survival. Survive pricing is meant only to be offered on a momentary or temporary basis. As soon as the case that initiated the survive pricing has passed, product prices are returned to previous or more appropriate levels.

Pricing Strategies

After selecting a pricing objective you will need to identify a pricing strategy. This will assist you once it comes time to in reality price her products. As with the pricing objectives, plenty of pricing strategies are accessible from which come choose. Details strategies work well with details objectives, therefore make sure you have taken your time selecting an objective. Careful selection of a pricing objective need to lead you come the suitable strategies. If the pricing strategy you select seems to contradict your favored pricing objective, then you have to revisit the concerns posed in the introduction and her marketing plan. As a reminder, the diagram at the finish of this publication illustrates i beg your pardon pricing strategies occupational well v each the the pricing missions previously discussed.

Additionally, various pricing strategies deserve to be supplied at different times to fit with changes in marketing strategies, industry conditions, and also product life cycles. Because that example, if you"re working under a status quo pricing objective through competitive pricing as your strategy early to bad market conditions, and also a year later you feel the the market has actually improved, you may wish to readjust to a profit margin maximization objective making use of a premium pricing strategy. Brief definitions of some pricing strategies follow.

Competitive pricing—pricing your product(s) based upon the prices your rivals have ~ above the same product(s). This pricing strategy can be helpful when differentiating your product native other assets is difficult. So, let"s say you develop fruit jams such together blueberry, strawberry, blackberry, and raspberry. Friend may consider using compete pricing due to the fact that there are numerous other jams ~ above the market and also you are unable to differentiate your jams come an extent that customers may be willing to pay much more for yours. Thus, if the price selection for jams currently on the sector is $1.45 to $1.85 per jar, you may price her jams at $1.65 per jar to loss in line v the competition. The strategy of vain pricing have the right to be offered when the pricing target is either survive or standing quo. As soon as the objective for pricing products is to enable the service to either preserve status quo or merely survive a an overwhelming period, vain pricing will allow the business to maintain profit by avoiding price wars (from pricing below the competition) or falling sales (from pricing above the competition).

Good, better, best pricing—charges much more for assets that have received an ext attention (for example, in packaging or sorting). The very same product is readily available in three different formats, v the price because that each level rising over that the the ahead level. For example, the manager that a farm industry that sells new apples may location some part of apples accessible for revenue in a huge container v which the customers have to sort to choose the apples they great to purchase. This apples would be priced in ~ the “good" price. Another section of apologize could additionally be placed in a container native which customers deserve to gather, yet these to apologize would have been presorted to eliminate less desirable apples, such as those with soft spots. These would certainly be priced at the “better" price. The “best" apples—those priced higher than the rest—may have been presorted, just as the “better" apples, yet have likewise been prepackaged for customer convenience. As demonstrated in this example, the “better" and also “best" levels require an ext attention by monitoring or labor but, if priced appropriately, might be precious the extra effort.

This pricing strategy have to be offered when pursuing revenue maximization and also quantity maximization objectives. Revenue maximization should occur as a result of amount maximization. Amount maximization should take place from the use of this pricing strategy because product is obtainable to customers in 3 prices ranges.

Loss leader—refers to commodities having low prices placed on lock in an attempt to lure customers to the business and to make more purchases. Because that example, grocery stores can use bread together a lose leader product. It you come to their save to purchase your bread, friend are very likely to purchase other grocery items at their store quite than walking to an additional store. The score of utilizing a loss leader pricing strategy is to attract customers come your business with a low price top top one product through the expectation that the customer will purchase other commodities with larger profit margins.

The ns leader pricing strategy have to be paired through either the amount maximization or partial cost recovery pricing objectives. The short price placed on the product should result in higher quantities that the product being sold while still recovering a part of the production cost.

Multiple pricing—seeks to gain customers to purchase a product in greater quantities by providing a slim discount on the higher quantity. In the display of prices, a price for the purchase of just one items is displayed along with the price because that a larger quantity. Because that example, a farm market may price one melon at $1.69 and also two in ~ $3.00. Pricing in this way offers the customer an obvious discount (in this instance $0.38) for purchasing the greater quantity. Client feel favor they"re obtaining a discount due to the fact that $1.50 ($3.00 ÷ 2) is less than the $1.69 price because that one melon. However, $1.50 is the price girlfriend would typically charge if friend were no employing a lot of pricing strategy. If you think the bulk of her customers will purchase the greater quantity, you will want to price the quantity so the your costs are covered and your benefit margin is maintained. A customer purchasing just one item will certainly pay an ext for the item than what you would frequently charge if you were not making use of a many pricing strategy.

The lot of pricing strategy works well through the profit maximization and also quantity maximization objectives. By enticing her customer to purchase an ext than one item you room generating more profit since you have set the price for just one items so the you receive a greater profit margin 보다 for which you would typically price. Essentially, the customer is being penalized because that purchasing simply one item. In addition, lot of pricing should increase the quantity of items being sold, hopefully causing less product loss or under unsold items.

Optional product pricing—used to attempt to gain customers to spend a little extra ~ above the product by purchasing options or extra features. Because that example, some customers might be ready to invest a little extra to be assured the they get product as soon as it i do not care available. This have the right to be an excellent strategy for custom operators. Let"s to speak you room a tradition operator giving forage harvesting services. Your base service option provides producers with simple harvesting. Obtainable options the the producer can purchase in enhancement to the harvesting company could include trucking to the storage site, packing, preventive application, and serving as a member that the producer"s advisory committee. The acquisition of each of these alternatives adds worth to the service that the producer is receiving. Through this strategy it is crucial that the extra fee because that the option(s) is reasonable; otherwise, you might lose service to a challenger with a much more appropriate pricing structure for the extra services offered.

Optional product pricing is best used as soon as the pricing objective is revenue maximization or high quality leadership. Through enticing customers to purchase one or much more of the alternatives offered come them, you will certainly be increasing your revenue due to the fact that the customers might not have actually purchased the choice if it to be not readily available or may have gone in other places to purchase it. By supplying optional commodities to enhance your base product or service, you space projecting an image of quality to her customers. Lock will most likely recognize your sell of added products or solutions as awareness of and also sensitivity to their needs.

Penetration pricing—used to get entry right into a new market. The objective because that employing penetration pricing is to attract and grow sector share. Once desired levels because that these missions are reached, product prices are commonly increased. Penetration prices will not garner the profit that you may want; therefore, this pricing strategy have to be provided strategically. Let"s say you have developed a new hot and spicy mustard product. Your sector research shows that the price variety for competitors" mustards is $1.89 come $2.99. Because numerous mustards space already easily accessible and friend are new to the mustard market, you decide to use penetration pricing to entice customers to purchase your mustard. Therefore, friend price your mustard in ~ $1.85 for the very first six months due to the fact that it consist of your cost of manufacturing yet is reduced than what you believe is a an excellent price for your product and also is below the lower finish of the market range, which must entice people to purchase your mustard end the other higher-priced mustards.

The strategy of penetration pricing deserve to be used when her pricing target is either revenue or quantity maximization. The reduced price collection on commodities by making use of penetration pricing is done to attract the maximum number of customers feasible to purchase your product. Large numbers of customers purchasing your product must maximize your revenue and the quantity of product sold. If the price to be higher, girlfriend would suppose fewer purchases, for this reason leading to lower revenues.

Premium pricing—employed as soon as the product friend are selling is unique and of really high quality, however you only expect to sell a small amount. These characteristics demand the a high, or premium, price it is in attached to the product. Buyers the such products typically check out them together luxuries and have small or no price sensitivity. The advantage of this pricing strategy is the you deserve to price high to recoup a huge profit to comprise for the small variety of items gift sold. Come demonstrate, let"s say the you have actually a flock of sheep and also you shear, dye, and also spin your own yarn. Her yarn is known in the industry as gift of very high quality. Few of that yarn you usage to knit sweaters, blankets, and scarves. Since your yarn and also knitting are really high quality and also you recognize that you probably won"t it is in making and selling a huge quantity of her knitted items, you decision to employ premium pricing. Your customers currently know that the fine top quality of your yarns or they are in higher income brackets, so they will certainly most likely pay a premium price for her premium knitted products.

Premium pricing have the right to be employed v the profit margin maximization or quality leadership pricing objectives. The premium price charged for the uniqueness and also quality of your product permits you to generate large profit margins on every item sold. Your product will likewise demonstrate your commitment to quality, and customers will certainly think that you when they desire together quality.

Product bundle pricing—used to group several items together for sale. This is a beneficial pricing strategy because that complementary, overstock, or older products. Customers purchase the product they really want, but for a tiny extra they additionally receive one or more additional items. The advantage of this pricing strategy is the capability to eliminate overstock items. ~ above the other hand, customers no wanting the extra items might decide no to purchase the bundle. This strategy is comparable to product line pricing, except that the items being grouped together do not should be complementary. Because that example, you have remaining stock of Christmas-related items after the holidays. If you like not to keep these item until following year, you can put a range of items in a little bag and also sell the bag at a discounted price.

Product bundle pricing deserve to be employed through revenue maximization or amount maximization objectives because bundling assets may an outcome in the revenue of products that may have gone unsold. High quality leadership deserve to be achieved since part customers will certainly appreciate having actually the opportunity to purchase a team of items in ~ a discount. The partial price recovery or survive objectives have the right to be fulfilled native a product bundling pricing strategy when commodities likely would have actually gone unsold otherwise and selling the assets at a discount permits you to recover some section of the production cost or generates enough of a benefit to remain in business or store from having to remove the product indigenous market.

Product line pricing—used when a variety of commodities or services complement each other and also can be packaged together to reflect increasing value. This pricing strategy is similar to the many pricing strategy. However, rather than purchase a better quantity the one item, the client is to buy a various item or organization at a higher price that is still regarded as a worth when contrasted to the price because that the separation, personal, instance product or service. Let"s say that in your farm market you offer jams, syrups, and pancake mixes, amongst other items. This items can be considered complementary because people usually placed jam and syrup on pancakes. In enhancement to offering each of these items individually, you can create a gift box that packages among each article together. The price for this gift box would certainly be slightly much less than what a customer would pay in complete when purchasing each of the same items individually.

The product line pricing functions well v the profit maximization and also quality management pricing objectives due to the fact that you are raising profit by encouraging the purchase of a greater number of products that may not have been to buy individually. Additionally, some customers will value the capacity to acquisition a team of security products.

Skim pricing—similar to premium pricing, calling for a high price come be placed on the product you space selling. However, through this strategy the price at some point will be lowered as competitors enter the market. This strategy is largely used on assets that are new and have actually few, if any, direct competitors when an initial entering the market. Let"s say you construct a carbonated, flavored, milk-based beverage packaged in 10-ounce plastic bottles. Because there are few drinks that this type on the market, you could use skim pricing until much more products involved market. Knowing that other similar beverage assets will likely go into the industry within a year or two, you might decide to price in ~ $1.95 per bottle once your product debuts. Assuming that other comparable beverages have pertained to market after ~ a year, girlfriend then reduced the price of your drink to $1.55 to continue to be competitive.

The skim pricing strategy need to be booked for once your pricing objective is benefit maximization, revenue maximization, or benefit margin maximization. Use this strategy as soon as your product is new on the market and there is no vain generates higher revenue, profit, and profit margins because you space the only one selling the product— customers must buy from you if they want what you are selling. You should use caution, though, so regarding not price so high though that customers aren"t ready to buy your product even though there room no competitors.


Choosing a pricing objective and a related strategy calls for you to closely consider your business and financial goals, the state of the market (including that past and also future), and the products and prices of her competition (and possibly their company goals). You desire to pick objectives and also strategies that will position your product and business because that success. Choosing an objective and strategies the are ideal for your company at the current time go not avoid you from an altering objectives or employing different strategies later on as your service grows or changes.



Giddens, N., J. Parcell, and M. Brees. Picking an proper Pricing Strategy. Ames: Iowa State university, 2005.

Marketing Teacher, Ltd. Pricing Strategies. Accessed July 27, 2006.

NetMBA. 2005. Pricing Strategy. Accessed July 27, 2006.

Uva, Wen-fei L. Clever Pricing Strategies. Ithaca: department of used Economics and also Management, Cornell University, 2001.

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Prepared by sarah A. Cornelisse, senior associate in agricultural economics.