The hundreds Years" battle was dealt with intermittently in between England and France native 1337 to 1453 CE and the conflict had many consequences, both immediate and also long-lasting. Besides the apparent death and destruction that countless of the battles went to upon soldiers and civilians alike, the battle made England practically bankrupt and also left the victorious French Crown in total control of all of France except Calais. Majesties would come and also go but for countless of them, one significant measure that the success that their regime was their performance in the hundred Years" War. Divisions were created within the nobilities the both countries which had repercussions for who ended up being the next ruling monarch. Profession was badly influenced and peasants to be incessantly taxed, which brought about several significant rebellions, but there were much more positive developments such as the development of much more competent and regularised taxes offices and the tendency towards much more professional diplomacy in worldwide relations. The war also produced enduring and also iconic national heroes, notably Henry V the England (r. 1413-1422 CE) and also Joan that Arc (1412-1431 CE) in France. Finally, together a long conflict against a plainly identifiable opponent resulted in both attendees forging a much better sense that nationhood. Also today, a rivalry tho continues in between these two neighbouring countries, now, fortunately, greatly expressed in ~ the boundaries of global sporting events.


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The ns of every English-held region in France other than Calais. A high number of casualties among the nobility, particularly in France. A decrease in trade, specifically English wool and also Gascon wine. A great wave of taxes come pay because that the war which added to social unrest in both countries. Technologies in forms of taxation collection. The advance of a stronger Parliament in England. The nearly total bankruptcy the the English treasury at the war"s end. The devastation of French towns and villages by mercenary soldiers between battles. breakthroughs in weapons an innovation such together cannons. The consolidation that the French monarch"s control over all of France. A higher use of international diplomacy and also specialised diplomats. A better feeling of nationalism among the populaces of both countries. The creation of national heroes, notably Henry V in England and Joan the Arc in France. A tangible rivalry in between the two countries which still proceeds today, seen specifically in sporting activities such together football and also rugby.

Death & Taxes: The business economics of Failure

Beyond the immediate aftermath of England"s failure in the war such as the loss of every territory other than Calais and France"s loss in the large battles which saw a huge number of nobles killed, over there were countless more, deeper and also subtler results of this 116-year conflict. There were also results which emerged long before the war had even ended as successive majesties on either side struggled through the problems produced by your predecessors. Finally, the conflict had an influence which lasted because that decades and also centuries after ~ it had long finished.


In England, many barons had come to be extremely wealthy as their power boosted at neighborhood level and the king ended up being correspondingly weaker and poorer as the barons kept local revenues come themselves. The king might not tax his human being without the permission the Parliament and so this body had to be called each time a monarch required much more cash for his projects in France or elsewhere. As a an outcome of Parliament generally meeting, the did no necessarily gain any brand-new powers yet it did develop for itself an identification and, through being connected in diplomatic policy discussions and the ratification of tranquility treaties, the college was beginning to become a part of English political life. The "Long Parliament" the 1406 CE, because that example, sat an abnormally long time from March till December together it deliberated end the ever-prickly worry of state finances, and also there was an extremely much a emotion that the king, although tho an absolute monarch, was perhaps just a little less pure than before the war.

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The bad economic situation of many communities was only worsened by count - Edward III dubbed for counting 27 times throughout his reign.

In France, the opposite to be true together the monarchy"s place was strengthened because of the success that the war while that of the nobility and the Estates basic (the legislature assembly) weakened. This was since the king walk not need to consult everyone else about taxation policies which can be levied at will certainly to pay for the war. The conflict also saw the development of long-lasting indirect counting such as the salt tax (gabelle) the was no abolished until the French revolution of the late 18th century CE. The French king was for this reason able to triple his revenue through taxes from the begin to the finish of the war. Further, together taxes compelled a whole brand-new state apparatus of taxes collectors, holder of public records, and also assessors because that payment disputes, ensuring the continual enrichment of the Crown.

In England, over there was regularly disagreement amongst the nobles of England as to how to best conduct the war versus France, indeed also whether to command it at all. This became much more serious in times of failure however the final loss in 1453 CE was one of the factors Henry by means of of England (r. 1422-61 & 1470-71 CE) became so unpopular and it was most likely a contributory element to the king"s episodes of madness. This dissatisfaction through the monarch, his evident aversion come warfare and the unpreventable search for scapegoats because that the ns of the war ultimately led to the dynastic conflict known to history as the battles of the Roses (1455-1487 CE). In addition, now that the war v France was over, English noble dissatisfied v the current regime could far better use their very own private militaries as a tool to rise their own wealth and also influence. Another an effect was the sheer variety of nobles together monarchs regularly created an ext aristocrats - two brand-new ranks in England were (e)squire and also gentlemen - together they search to increase their tax base. Indeed, throughout the war, the nobility of England tripled in size as brand-new members standard via residential or commercial property ownership fairly than just hereditary titles (although it to be still under 2% that the total population in the mid-15th century CE).