Thomas A. Parker, PhDFormer president & EntomologistPest control Services, Inc.Kennett Square, Pennsylvania


As caretakers of an important artifacts, artworks, photographs, manuscripts, and also other crucial materials, experts in social heritage organizations should be mindful that the visibility of pests in collections have the right to seriously damages these materials. The condition of the building “envelope” directly affects its structural integrity, the level to i m sorry pests deserve to infiltrate it, and the all at once condition of the collections housed within.

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The ax Integrated Pest management (IPM) describes pest control and also prevention programs that rely on several simultaneous viewpoints to attain the desired result. In the past, discussions of combined Pest monitoring for libraries and archives have often focused on the disinfestation of recognized pest problems in collections.

However, the is much an ext important, difficult, and time-consuming for staff to prevent pest infestation in buildings and also collections. The hatchet Integrated Preventive Pest monitoring (IPPM) better reflects this understanding.

Eliminating currently infestations in collections is reasonably easy, although numerous methods deserve to be harmful come collections. A variety of treatment approaches have actually been used, consisting of chemical methods, such together pesticide applications and also toxic gas fumigations; and non-chemical treatments, such together freezing or heating the materials, the use of micro-waves, gamma radiation, modified atmospheres, and anoxic fumigation. No one wants a repertoire to be consumed by pest or rodent. It is equally essential to prevent the chewing, residue deposition, defecation, and also urination that may an outcome from a variety of pests inhabiting repertoire areas. This leaflet will present the principles of IPPM as well as how to safely respond as soon as infestations do occur.

In dealing with destructive pests, one should think about various problems that might add to insect infestation:

routes of insect entry into the buildingconstruction anomalies that the building itselfexhibit design and also constructionkinds the pests that could threaten details collectionstypes and also numbers that pests found about or near the exterior of the building

Also, take into consideration policies and also procedures that might unwittingly present pests: warehouse practices and equipment, maintenance, and also housekeeping practices.

In many ways, social heritage collections resemble an agricultural setting, where huge quantities of foodstuffs are save for long periods the time. Starches, cellulose, and also proteins found in collections administer food because that various species of pests. Pest damage to collection is primarily resulted in by termites, bookworms, cockroaches, silverfish, booklice, carpet beetles, clothes moths, rodents, birds, and also mold.

The first step is to determine what types of pests room coming right into the building and also damaging collections, and also then determine just how to save them native gaining accessibility to these at risk materials. Resolving existing problems and preventing brand-new ones entails the education and also cooperation the the entire staff.

The significant objectives of any kind of collections-based IPPM program must be:

Create an IPPM committee come oversee every IPPM activities.Repair or change the structure envelope come discourage infiltration through pests, to maintain a moderate climate, and also to stop water and high family member humidity problems that may encourage pests.Devise and also institute a thoroughly housekeeping program in storage, exhibit, work, and also public areas.Ensure preventative pest steps are in ar during major renovation or building projects.Maintain a an extensive pest-monitoring programProvide cultivate for staff to ensure that they recognize the prestige of the program and can assist in the implementation.

The structure exterior

Occasional Invaders

The beginning point of any kind of IPPM regimen is to determine which pests room a hazard to the building and also its collections. Libraries and also archives experience pest pressure from the exterior, which might or might not have an result on the collections. Countless insects, termed sometimes invaders, simply walk or fly into the building. Occasional invaders incorporate millipedes, sow bugs, earwigs, flies, wasps, bees, soil beetles, and also night-flying moths. While nobody of these insects is a straight threat to collections, dead body of large-bodied insects may act as a food source for carpet beetle larvae and mice. Carpet beetle adults seek out protein-based products on which come lay eggs. The larvae of these beetles may then devour products on display or in storage. Dead insects space a significant source of protein for mice.

Some an useful manuscripts or publications are housed in protective boxes lined through wool felt and carpet beetle larvae will certainly consume this type of material. Various other food items favored by carpet beetle larvae space animal-based materials, such as wool, feathers, hair, felt, porcupine quills, whale baleen, wool-based embroidery, tapestries, insect and also mouse carcasses, and wool feeling exhibit situation linings. Animal leather is normally not attacked and silk is not a food source for carpet beetles. Vegetable-based materials, such as linen, burlap, and cotton, space not attacked. However, sizing in paper and cloth may provide a source of food.

Prevention of occasional invaders (as well as all pests) need to be aimed in ~ making the structure envelope together tight together possible. The most typical routes that entry room via doors used by staff and garage doors. Seldom-used fire to escape doors have the right to also enable such entry. Weather-stripping and also brush sweepers have to be mounted on every doors to avoid entry that pests. Pipe penetrations through the exterior envelope that the structure should it is in sealed with caulking or copper wool gauze. Exterior lighting affixed to a building should be high-pressure, sodium vapor kind fixtures, which provide off tiny amounts of ultra-violet light and also thus attract fewer night-flying and crawling insects.


Pigeons, starlings, and sparrows are the most common birds the nest and also roost top top buildings. Dead birds, feathers, and other swarm detritus might act together a food source for carpet beetle and also webbing clothes moth infestations. Every effort should it is in made to get rid of nesting that birds. Mechanical measures are most often used come deter bird roosting and also nesting. A experienced firm specializing in bird manage may need to be consulted in order come bird-proof a building.


Mice living around a structure regularly probe the exterior in ~ night, search a way to go into a building. Contrary to well-known belief, mice execute not gnaw their means into a building: they utilize openings in the building envelope. Computer mouse populations often develop up throughout the warmer month of the year and invade buildings in the fall. Sealing the building exterior is an essential to exclusion.


Subterranean and/or drywood termites may occasionally be encountered in a building. This kind of trouble should be left come a experienced firm specializing in control and also prevention the termites. In selecting such a firm, the main question to ask the representative is whether the technicians the the firm room certified by your state because that wood-destroying insects. Most states have such a certification program, which requires the individual to study and also pass tests managing the appropriate use that pesticides and also knowledge of details pests. A certain that provides the initiative to certify all of its technicians have the right to usually it is in relied upon for top quality termite control treatments.

the building interior


There space two species of cockroaches the may end up being a difficulty in a library or comparable institution. Two big cockroaches, the American and also Oriental cockroaches, can damages library materials by feeding on castle directly. Most commonly, American cockroaches graze on publication covers, photographs, and also paper-based materials. They frequently congregate in daylight hrs in quiet, dark areas in the framework where castle emit a brown fluid, called attar, ~ above the surfaces of materials. Attar has actually an aggregation pheromone in it, i beg your pardon attracts other cockroaches come their resting place. They are nocturnal and also roam commonly throughout the facility in search of food sources and also opportunities because that mating. They often enter structures via the drain system and screening floor drains will stop this immigration. Top top occasion, egg cases of this cockroach may unwittingly be lugged into a building via cardboard boxes top top which the egg situations have been glued by the female. A thorough glue-board monitoring regime will alert staff to the existence of this cockroaches. Granular baits may additionally be provided for these large cockroaches. (Types of catch are characterized later in this leaflet.)

A smaller cockroach, the German cockroach, is usually connected with food handling kitchens and also catering situations, vending areas, and also bathrooms. The prefers to remainder in cracks and also crannies. This cockroach is usually uncovered near a water resource and as such is not normally a threat to collections. The can conveniently be regulated utilizing gel baits specifically designed for this species.


Silverfish can also pose a difficulty to the building and also collections. Silverfish are nocturnal, wingless insects the hide in cracks and crevices during the day and come the end at night to feed on perfect paper, sizing, glue, and also wallpaper. Their surname derives from their silvery scales and they prefer materials high in starch content. Silverfish space normally uncovered in cool, moist locations of a building. A cousin the the silverfish, the firebrat, is usually found in really hot locations of a building, such together a boiler room, and is no a pest of collections. Silverfish have actually rather weak mouthparts and also feed on materials by rasping the surface. The damage shows up to it is in lace-like, irregular job on the surface, only sometimes rasping their means all the method through the material, leaving feet behind. Their feeding may include the sizing that silk or starched cloth. A glue-board regime will often administer an effective means of control.

Psocids or Booklice

Booklice room tiny, wingless insects, which might occasionally be checked out scurrying throughout the web page of a book. This insects carry out not damages collections and are generally an point out of high humidity conditions. They feed on microscope mold. Improving eco-friendly controls may assist in heavy infestations. A glue-board routine will generally suffice to border populations.


Active infestations the bookworms in collection are rather rare in the joined States. Bookworms are actually the larvae of specific kinds that beetles that have the capability to damages bound materials. The larvae of these beetles regularly feed ~ above the glue of the binding and also covers, leaving behind tunnels or galleries together they feed. Upon completion of that is life cycle, the adult beetle chews its method out of the book, leaving behind a small, round hole. Active infestations will constantly be associated with piles of fancy frass (excrement). The shade of the frass is normally the color of the cover of the book. Old, dark departure holes there is no frass are an indication of one infestation that developed long ago and is not currently active. The most common bookworm in the United states is the cigarette beetle. In Europe and also the center East, the bookworm might actually be the furniture beetle. Infestations in the U.S. Space unwittingly brought into a cultural heritage company via incoming loan or acquisitions. Inspection of incoming products is crucial for finding and preventing infestations.

If an energetic infestation of bookworms is discovered, the materials deserve to be frozen and the infestation properly eliminated. If one infestation is found in developed collections, consultation with a professional may be required. In addition, a pheromone trapping program may be essential for surveillance existing collections and also pinpointing proceeding infestation.

Clothes Moths

Clothes moths, along with carpet beetles, are generally referred to as fabric pests. Two species of garments moths, the webbing clothing moth and also the case-making garments moth, are commonly found infesting protein-based materials. That is rare to encounter a clothes moth infestation in a library or archives, simply since such organizations do not normally store or exhibit materials susceptible to clothing moth attack. The many common apparel moth uncovered in structures in the U.S. Is the webbing clothing moth. The larvae the this moth feed on wool, feathers, fur, felt, taxidermy mounts, and other animal-based products. The adults execute not have actually functional mouthparts and also therefore carry out not damages materials. If a small, active infestation the webbing clothing moths is discovered, freezing the products is commonly the first choice for disinfestation. Control and prevention of huge infestations need to be left in the hand of a qualified entomological consultant.


Mice on the interior of a building may damage materials through chewing them because that nesting material or defecating and also urinating top top them. The most usual mouse uncovered in buildings is the residence mouse. This computer mouse is nocturnal, very territorial, and very curious—it will check anything brand-new in the territory. As such tendency, snap traps and/or glue-boards deserve to be supplied to trap mice.

Rodent bait should not be offered in a social heritage organization. Rodent bait will certainly generate carpet beetles in the bait itself. The bait may act together a food resource for other insects, including large cockroaches, and also the toxicant in the bait will certainly not kill insects. If a computer mouse dies from the effects of the rodent bait, once the carcass mummifies that may end up being a food resource for carpet beetles and/or apparel moths. As such, mice need to be trapped and removed native the building, not poisoned.


Bedbugs are significantly a concern for collecting institutions, not because of the damages they do to the materials, but since they are a helminth insect the feeds ~ above blood and also reproduces rapidly. Bedbug infestations can have an affect on human being health, causing skin rashes and allergic reactions, not to cite the psychological impacts the infestation deserve to have on staff and patrons.

If an active infestation that bedbugs is discovered in arsenal materials, the materials deserve to be frozen and also the infestation efficiently eliminated. Modified atmosphere treatments, particularly those based on nitrogen, space also an extremely effective for bedbugs. If an infestation has been established in the building, consultation with a skilled will be required.

overall ippm strategies

To ensure an reliable program, an IPPM committee must be produced to oversee all IPPM activities within the organization. These activities include the as whole strategies, chemistry treatments, and non-chemical treatments explained below. Members of every departments or locations should be contained on the IPPM committee, i beg your pardon supervises the collection of pest surveillance data and the implementation of specific control and prevention programs. Members of this team can include administrative staff, archivists, curators, librarians, paraprofessional staff, housekeeping and also maintenance staff, and also exhibit design staff.

It is finest to begin a official pest administration program with an initial survey of the building and also all arsenal storage areas. Have actually there been any pest difficulties in the past? If so, what type of pest was involved and what products were affected? What to be done to deal with the problem? as soon as the committee understands the species of pests that can enter the building and also possibly damages collection materials, the next step is to collection up one IPPM regime to address the determined needs.

The building Exterior

Make the structure uninviting for roosting and also nesting the birds, rodents, cockroaches, and also other vermin, and make the framework as tight as possible to protect against infiltration through insects, rodents, and birds. Seal windows and doors tightly—weather-stripping might be necessary. Perform not regularly prop open up doors. Seal openings roughly pipes and cracks in the wall surfaces or foundation. Display screen vents to keep out birds and also rodents. Design and also install exterior bright so that it will certainly not it is in attractive come night-flying insects. Repair, modify, and also install guttering top top the structure to prevent damages from rot and also insects led to by water problems, and also to lessen the humidity the the interior, ambient air. Maintain a planting-free zone of about 12 inches approximately buildings to discourage insects indigenous entering. In addition, plantings need to be correctly cared for and not end watered. The area roughly foundations should be graveled and graded far from a building to prevent basement flooding.

In the occasion that a insect infiltration go occur, it may likewise be crucial to modify existing elements of the building to protect against pest infestation from spreading throughout the facility

The structure Interior


Climate must be moderate, and also conditions need to be cool and also dry; specifics rely on the demands of various materials. Because that pest control, temperature have to be 68°F or lower, and also relative humidity should be kept below a best of 70%; however, keeping climate problems recommended for the preservation of publications and record will aid to manage insect populations. For an ext information ~ above climate, top the 2175forals.com Leaflet 2.1 Temperature, family member Humidity, Light, and Air Quality: simple Guidelines for Preservation.


Pipes in collections areas and other sources of water such as restrooms, kitchens, or climate-control devices should be inspected regularly to guard against water leakage. Wrap sweating pipes through insulating tape. Close off unused drains or drainpipe openings. Roofs and also basements have to be inspected periodically come ensure the there is no was standing water or flooding. Where and when problems recur, constant inspections have to be implemented.


Limit the number of live plants and also cut flower in the building. If this is impossible, plants should be fine cared for and kept come a minimum; flowering tree should absolutely be avoided. Prevent over watering and watch plants closely for signs of infestation or disease.

Food consumption should be confined come a staff lounge or, if food is permitted throughout the building, garbage have to be emptied daily. If functions including refreshments are held in various other spaces, seal all leftovers strictly or ensure the they are removed by the caterers. Vacuuming and kitchen cleanup should be performed immediately. Save all food in strict sealed glass or steel containers or in the refrigerator, and carry out a plastic garbage can with a tight-fitting lid because that food waste. Trash should be gotten rid of from the building daily.


Devise and also institute a thoroughly housekeeping program, emphasizing regimen vacuuming of at risk exhibits, storage areas, publicly areas, and also other rooms. In addition, arsenal storage locations (and other areas) need to be cleaned extensively at the very least every 6 months. All areas should be confirm for signs of pests at the very least once a month. Look for stains and also signs the insect grazing (small feet in paper, or areas of lose on the surface ar of record or bindings). Examine windowsills, under bookcases and radiators, on and behind shelves, and inside boxes and drawers for indicators of insect activity. Watch for tiny piles the dust, insect bodies, frass (insect droppings), egg cases, and also live insects; clean up any insect debris immediately.


It is an especially important to develop strict procedures for managing newly obtained collections, as collections frequently will have been formerly stored in attics or basements hospitable come pests.

Examine just arrive material immediately to watch if there is evidence of infestation. Work over a clean surface extended with blotter or various other light paper. Eliminate all objects from storage or shipping enclosures and look in ~ the binding, pages, and also hollow (if any) in books. Examine framework backings and mats, wrappings, and other accompanying materials. Look for live creatures, insect droppings, larvae, or insect bodies.

Transfer materials to clean archival boxes till you can process them. If possible, isolate re-housed, incoming materials in a room away from various other collections till processing. An are that will carry out preservation problems is cool, dry, clean, and also outfitted with shelving to discourage mold and insects. (Shelving permits air circulation and keeps items off of the floor.) litter the old boxes away unless they room archival quality and also you space absolutely details they room clean.

The clean archival boxes can be used repeatedly for this short-lived holding use as lengthy as the contents and boxes continue totally free of proof of insects. Ideally, the course, incoming material should be processed and also re-housed in its long-term enclosures promptly. Realistically, processing may be delayed, and also the interior of boxes should be inspected consistently at the very least every couple of weeks. A time or motel-type difficult trap deserve to be inserted on a sidewall inside each crate to improve monitoring.If over there is evidence of insects, speak to a preservation professional for comprehensive advice before proceeding. Materials have the right to be vacuumed completely (assuming the objects are not deteriorated or fragile) v a nylon or other soft screen, making use of a high-filtration vacuum. Discard both filter and disposable bag external of the structure or in a sealed container that is listed for food wastes and is emptied daily.


Once the structure envelope has been sealed, efficient pest security on the interior requires the routine use the a trapping program. Download non-chemical traps because that rodents and also insects on the interior, in situation pests slip previous the exterior defenses. The many common technique is to rental the use of sticky traps, likewise called blunder traps or glue-boards, which are obtainable from a selection of advertisement manufacturers. Cardboard glue-boards, i m sorry sit flat on the floor, must be used. Tray-type glue-boards have to not it is in used, due to the fact that insects will just travel roughly the glue-board and also not be caught in it. In undisturbed areas, the traps have the right to be laid level on the floor in quiet areas and also corners of rooms and closets. In public areas, folded, tent-like traps have the right to be used. The direction that travel deserve to be ascertained by note where bug is captured on the trap.

Records of trap placements in the building should be kept, along with details that what has actually been trapped. Initially the record of trap records should be retained weekly. Eventually they deserve to be taped on a monthly basis. Traps should be replaced if they space no longer sticky or if big insects or mice are trapped. If the end insects room being trapped, this should alert staff to the truth that a door or home window is allowing ingress. If repertoire pests room being trapped, a an ext intensive trapping program need to be denote in the prompt area in order to pinpoint the source of the infestation. The insects being trapped have the right to be sent to a local agricultural extension agent for identification. Proper identification is important to identify if the trapped insects are a straight threat to collections. Number of of the resources listed at the end of this leaflet can be offered for identification of insect pests affect collections.

The simple procedure for monitoring using trap is together follows:

Identify all doors, windows, water and also heat sources, and furniture top top a building floor plan.Identify most likely insect routes, and also mark trap areas on a floor plan.Number and also date the traps.Place the catch in the area to be monitored, as indicated on the floor plan.Inspect and also collect the traps regularly.Refine catch placement and inspection as necessary, follow to the proof collected.

All employee members have to be educated as to the prominence of the IPPM program and also be motivated to submit samples that insects found throughout the basic to the IPPM committee. In time, with the glue-board security program and insect submissions, the committee will end up being familiar v the types of pests encountered in the building and also the dynamics the the populations. Effective, irreversible corrective actions can then be taken to protect against pests indigenous entering the structure and also infesting the building and collections.


Conventional pest Control

An incorporated Preventive Pest management program will seldom require the use of conventional pesticide applications in a social heritage organization. If a experienced pest manage firm is under contract to an institution, the technician will frequently spray pesticides roughly the perimeter of various rooms. This approach may be effective for just two species of heavy infestations: silverfish and also booklice. Normally infestations of these two species of insects execute not require repetitive pesticide applications. In a heavy infestation, an initial application of a micro-encapsulated insecticide will certainly suffice, followed by the created monitoring program. Fogging the pesticides must never be offered in a collection institution. Instead, the pest control technician should focus on the food handling and also vending areas, using bait applications quite than spraying. The remainder that the facility can typically be kept reasonably pest totally free through the IPPM security program and also thorough cleaning and also vacuuming by the housekeeping staff.

Toxic Fumigants

In the past, some of the most toxic gases in the human being have been supplied to fumigate cultural heritage materials. Fumigants as methyl bromide, ethylene oxide, and also Vikane have been used for disinfestation that infested materials. Today, there is never any kind of reason for the cultural heritage neighborhood to utilize such dangerous chemistry to escape a collection of insect pests. Non-chemical methods can be employed when an infestation of collections is discovered.

In addition, routine fumigation that incoming products is unwarranted and also dangerous. Not only is there a possibility the products themselves will certainly be adversely affected, but likewise the off-gassing the the fumigant is a direct threat to the health and wellness of staff and also the building environment.



Most paper-based materials have the right to be frozen to effectively eliminate every stages that the insect’s life. Research studies have presented that freezing products does not adversely influence them, with some exceptions. Wonderful reference is the pioneer work on freezing composed by Mary-Lou E. Florian and also subsequent work by thomas J. K. Strang. Very delicate or friable materials, or those do of combined materials, usually should no be frozen. In practice, materials that one could hesitate to freeze would be objects with inlays and wooden composites. A conservator with comprehensive experience in freezing every manner that materials and objects should be consulted before proceeding.

Commonly, a family or commercial freezer is supplied for this process. The materials are placed in a sealed, polyethylene bag and also held at room temperature. They room then quickly placed in the freezer. Care must be given not to pack the freezer tightly. The freezer need to be qualified of getting to 0?C (32?F) in ~ 4 hours, and continue to plummet to -20?F. Most chest-type, family members freezers qualify for these parameters. The materials are hosted in the freezer because that a period of 72 hours and then removed. They should be enabled to warmth to room temperature (while quiet in the bag), and then eliminated from the bag, cleaned, and also labeled in part manner through information worrying the process and the reasons for freeze the materials. It is great practice to encompass this information in official collection records as well. For the types of insects commonly encountered in collections materials, a single progression v the above procedure is normally sufficient.

In instances where a big incoming distribution of arsenal materials has been inspected and found to have an infestation (such together bookworms), the entire shipment may need to be quarantined, boxed, palletized, shrink-wrapped, and sent off to a commercial warehouse because that frozen foods items or a commercial freeze operation. A advertisement freezing operation usually maintains a continuous temperature the 0?F. The materials will have to be exposed for one week since the temperature never ever reaches the compelled -20?F. If the freezing unit is a vacuum freeze dryer, 72-hours will certainly be sufficient for reliable disinfestation. However, freezing imparts no residual services to the materials; they will certainly still be breakable to subsequent attack.

Modified Atmospheres

This term refers to fumigation with miscellaneous inert gases, such together nitrogen, carbon dioxide, argon, or a mix of few of these, because that insect control. In order to usage these methods, a gas-tight structure, fumigation bubble, or low-permeability plastic bag must be offered in order come maintain precise levels the the gases necessary for total insect kill. The wait is drawn out the the airtight confinement container. Nitrogen, frequently in mix with carbon dioxide, is then pumped right into the container. Over a duration of 3 weeks, the nitrogen/carbon dioxide level are very closely monitored and also maintained. After ~ exposure, the products are aerated before being brought earlier into the facility. Specialized monitoring and also application tools is crucial for these species of anoxic fumigations. Most libraries and also archives space not fitted to perform these varieties of procedures and professional help will it is in required.


All step of an insect’s life can be properly killed through heating materials to 130?F for a period of 3 hours. In many instances, this type of disinfestation of collection is not recommended for cultural heritage materials. Temperatures vital for insect eradication accelerate file aging and also oxidation, and also materials can become brittle and also otherwise damaged. Microwave heating need to be entirely avoided. This procedure is uncontrollable and will result in damage to covers and pages through the opportunity of scorching or igniting them.

Gamma Radiation

Gamma radiation is used to sterilize cosmetics, food and agricultural products, medical supplies, and hospital and also laboratory equipment. Research study has shown that gamma radiation may initiate oxidation and also cause scission of cellulose molecules; it has the potential come seriously damage paper-based materials. There is additionally a cumulative impact from repeated exposures. Provided these factors, gamma radiation is not recommended.


The many varying threats from pests make it advisable for social heritage organizations to construct an combined Preventive Pest management program for their buildings and collections. This initiative should be applied with the full cooperation of staff under the direction of an IPPM committee.

An reliable monitoring routine will identify what pests are present and also how they space entering the facility, and will give insight for the development of a preventative program targeted at selected insect problems. Non-chemical techniques of insect prevention can be applied in-house to effectively and also safely stop infestations. Chemical treatments must be avoided if at all possible. The emphasis of any IPPM program need to be on preventing pest problems prior to they arise.

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Connecting to collections CareIdentifying Museum Insect pest Damage and Addressing that with combined Pest Management (webinar)https://www.connectingtocollections.org/webinar-pest-management/

Council that Library and also Information sources (CLIR) and also Cornell UniversityLibrary Preservation and also Conservation Tutorial: insect Control https://chinapreservationtutorial.library.cornell.edu/content/pest-control

Mary-Lou Florian“Freezing for Museum Insect pest Eradication”Collection Forum, feather 1990http://www.spnhc.org/media/assets/cofo_1990_V6N1.pdf

Integrated Pest administration Working GroupWebsite extending prevention, monitoring, identification, and also expert advice. Http://museumpests.net

National Park Service

Conserve-O-Grams: collection 3: Agents the Deteriorationhttps://www.nps.gov/museum/publications/conserveogram/cons_toc.html#collectionpreservation

NPS Museum Handbook, component I (2014): thing 5, biological Infestations.https://www.nps.gov/museum/publications/MHI/CHAP5.pdf

2175forals.com conservation Leaflets2.1 Temperature, relative Humidity, Light, and also Air Quality: basic Guidelines for Preservationhttps://www.2175forals.com/free-resources/preservation-leaflets/2.-the-environment/2.1-temperature,-relative-humidity,-light,-and-air-quality-basic-guidelines-for-preservation

Thomas J. K. Strang“A evaluation of published Temperatures because that the control of insect Insects in Museums”Collection Forum, loss 1992United states Department the AgricultureCooperative expansion Servicehttps://nifa.usda.gov/cooperative-extension-system

© 2007. To update 2015. 2175forals.com Northeast record Conservation Center. All rights reserved.