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The phrase ‘The lord be with you’, in miscellaneous languages and also in that is Latin Dominus vobiscum, has actually been the greeting the gathers Christians with each other in worship for over a millennium. I can say that it is the church’s Hello, and I quite prefer that jolly interpretation. Nevertheless, it is crucial not to dumb the down: this phrase has actually power.

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‘The mr be v you’ is a presidential greeting, i beg your pardon is most frequently encountered in ~ the start of the a liturgy and also and the start of the eucharistic prayer. That is also found prior to the analysis of the Gospel, prior to a blessing, before blessing baptismal water, in the middle of Exsultet, and also before praying a collect.

The biblical recommendations of Ruth 2.4, II Chronicles 15.2 and also Matthew 28.20 are offered in assistance of this phrase. It can be clearly dated back to the 6th century (Council of Braga and, later, Gelasian Sacramentary), however can be inferred from the Apostolic Tradition and also other early on texts.

Grammatically, the course, the Latin original has actually no verb: Dominus vobiscum means, more literally, ‘Lord through you’. English requirements the verb ‘to be’ come act as a copula. An obvious an option would have actually been to analyze the phrase with ‘The lord is through you’ (this is in the indicative mood). Instead, ours English reformers made decision ‘The mr be v you’, in the good-bye mood. Unequal much spoken English, and indeed created English, the subjunctive atmosphere is on quite regular duty in the book of common Prayer. The good-bye is often used in blessing formulas, and also this shows critical interpretation of this phrase: the is not about stating a fact — the Lord’s presence — however is the blessing that the Lord’s presence. A major feature that a many liturgical language is the it is performative: that does something. This details phrase is the greeting — the benediction — that constitutes the Christian assembly because that worship.

The eastern churches have actually ‘Peace come all’ / ‘And through thy spirit’, but its use is different.

And through thy spirit

The Latin an answer to Dominus vobiscum is Et cum spiritu tuo. The classic English translate into of this is ‘And with thy spirit’, and also the i agree ecumenical translate into into modern-day English is ‘And additionally with you’. The contemporary translation is clearly more that a paraphrase than a straight translation that the Latin. This paraphrase understands the usage of the word ‘spirit’ together metonymy because that the minister’s human or self.

The Epistles use this phrase at Galatians 6.18, Philippians 4.23, Philemon 25 and also II Timothy 4.22.

The new Catholic translate in of the missal has taken us ago closer to the initial by using ‘And with your spirit’. A friend who is a Catholic priest commented to me that he find the previous translation — ‘And also with you’ — much more affirming of his totality person 보다 the brand-new translation.

Et cum spiritu tuo is plainly not a direct reference come the divine Spirit, as the soul does not belong come the minister. In ~ its simplest, ‘your spirit’ is metonymy because that ‘you’, and also avoids the short, ungainly Et tecum, ‘And through you’ (even ‘And also with you’ provides extra syllables). Various other commentators have explained the expression as an acknowledgement of the spirituality grace given the ordained minister by the holy Spirit. It is comparable to the east affirmation the a priest’s ordination by the acclamation of the people: axios, ‘worthy’.

Praxis

It is essential to speak around how we do, and also should do, Dominus vobiscum. This is where I think that the an option of the good-bye in English is informative. The greeting is not a statement the Jesus is here so let’s gain on with it. That is a benediction the recognises the icon of Christ in the assembly the the baptized, and also draws the end this image, verbally constituting the ekklesia. In ~ the commencement, and at various other high point out of liturgy, the minister therefore constitutes the church, and also the people, in response, declare the human being being before them to be your minister by grace.

Some principles

It is important: perform not sirloin it or belittle it.It is the greeting that constitutes the liturgical assembly.It have to not be preceded or complied with by much more colloquial stock phrases of greeting, choose ‘hello’, ‘good morning’, etc.The only thing that need to preface the opening greeting is the Trinitarian invocation.Giving notices, and also even announcing a hymn, before the greeting takes far from that impact.It is simple to remember, so it should not be read from a book.It have the right to lead into words the welcome and advent (the ‘intention’).It should be attach by the proper gesture: arms open up in a welcoming embrace.The gesture need to not be one of two people poky or overlarge.The gesture need to not be stubborn or vague.Traditionally, a deacon renders no gesture v these words.The monk or deacon need to be attentive come the people’s response, and also drink in their affirmation before proceeding.

Common Worship

Common worship Order One starts with one optional Trinitarian invocation by the eucharistic president. This is complied with by among two presidential greetings. The very first is ‘The lord be through you’ / ‘and likewise with you’, while the alternate is ‘Grace, mercy and peace from God our Father and also the lord Jesus Christ be with you’ / ‘and also with you’. The paschal acclamation always follows in Eastertide, however this need not be claimed or sung through the president.

Some other typical Worship liturgies usage the elegant (II Corinthians 13.14) together the greeting: ‘The elegant of our mr Jesus Christ, the love the God, and also the fellowship the the divine Spirit be through you’ / ‘and additionally with you’. It appears as among the greetings in Patterns for Worship (p 64, among others), and also is used as the greeting come the Maundy Thursday liturgy in Times and Seasons (p 294). This renders this greeting normally authorized for use. These three greetings, then, space the main possibilities for opened a eucharist, and correspond exactly to the 3 options accessible in the Catholic missal. Below is choice, however I favor the old, straightforward greeting.

At the start of the eucharistic prayer, the same very first greeting is used, or replaced with a various text ‘The mr is here’ / ‘His spirit is through us’. The same alternatives are given in the traditional-language version of order One, except the traditional solution ‘and v thy spirit’ follows ‘The lord be through you’. Stimulate Two, being based on the Prayer Book, walk not start with a greeting. However, it does imply that the collection be introduced with the traditional greeting. It permits the use of the greeting at the beginning of the preface. Oddly, the contemporary-language version of bespeak Two has neither of this optional additions. Note 2 (on p 330 the the main Volume) allows the use of traditional texts come replace modern-day ones. This method that the an answer ‘and v thy spirit’ is permissible in a contemporary-language service. At a push, one can deem this to incorporate use that the new Catholic translation, ‘and with your spirit’. More relevant is note 7 (on p 331), which permits ‘The mr be through you’ and also either solution at other perfect points. The note gives prior to the Gospel and also before the blessing or dismissal together examples. The choice of place it before the dismissal is odd, yet the other positions have actually precedent. That does not point out the other classic position of prior to the collect.

Catholic missal: new English translation

In the new English translation of the Catholic missal, ~ the causing obligation trinitarian invocation, there room three feasible greetings: ‘The elegant of our lord Jesus Christ, and the love of God, and the communion of the divine Spirit be v you all’, ‘Grace come you and also peace native God our Father and the mr Jesus Christ’ or ‘The lord be with you’. The same solution — ‘And through your spirit’ – is used for each. The missal mentions a bishop’s peculiar greeting together ‘Peace be with you’ through the same response. The missal does not repeat the greeting before the collect. The greeting is, however, used prior to announcing the Gospel. The same greeting is offered at the start of the eucharistic prayer, there is no any options admitted. Prior to the blessing, the celebrant supplies the greeting again. The Tridentine Mass uses the greeting eight times: before ascending to the altar, before the collects, before the Gospel, the offertory prayer, the eucharistic preface, the post-communion prayer, the critical Gospel and the blessing.

Book of typical Prayer

The communion company of the book of common Prayer does not incorporate the classic greeting in any kind of position. It clearly was felt to be as well sacerdotal. However, thomas Cranmer’s an initial Prayer publication (of 1549) has the greeting prior to the bidding ‘Let us pray’ come the collect. The greeting additionally heads the eucharistic prayer. Finally, the greeting shows up before the ‘Let us pray’ the introduces the post-communion thanksgiving that begins ‘Almighty and everliving God, we many heartily thank thee…’.

One significant place where the traditional greeting remained throughout the revisions of the Prayer book is in the offices of matins and also evensong. In the 1549 original, the greeting prefaces the ‘Let us pray’ before the 3 collects. These come after the preces. In the an initial revision that the Prayer book (in 1552) the services of morning and also evening prayer were totally reworked, and the classic greeting was moved between the Apostles’ Creed and the small Litany (kyries), a position retained with 1662.

Traditional variants

The episcopal variation of Dominus vobiscum is Pax vobis, translated ‘Peace be through you’ (literally ‘Peace to you’), with the normal response.

A layperson, traditionally a subdeacon, uses the form Domine exaudi orationem meam, ‘O Lord, hear mine prayer’, with the solution Et clamor noster advertisement te veniat, ‘And let our cry come unto thee’. This is taken indigenous the first verse that Psalm 102.

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Postscript of Latin geekery

The Latin preposition cum means ‘with’, and also its thing is in the ablative case. The an individual pronoun vos, which is ‘you’ in the many (when speaking to an ext than one person), bring away the form vobis in the ablative. Unusually, cum follows and joins to an individual pronouns, developing the develops mecum, tecum, secum, nobiscum, vobiscum (‘with me; girlfriend (singular); him, her, it, them; us; you (plural)’). The object expression spiritu tuo is also in the ablative case. In the phrase Pax vobis, the pronoun is in the datil case, even though it is spelt the very same as the ablative, definition ‘to you’.