Which that the complying with is not an abiotic factor that organisms can come into contact with?






Population ecologists are mainly interested in:

a)understanding exactly how biotic and abiotic determinants influence populations and how lock change.

You are watching: The region that is characterized by a vast realm of open, blue water is called the _________ zone.

b)the overall vitality of a population of organisms.

c)how humans influence the size of wild populaces of organisms.

d)studying interactions amongst populations that organisms the inhabit the exact same area.

e)how populations evolve together natural selection acts ~ above heritable variations amongst individuals and also changes in gene frequency.

Ecosystem ecology emphasizes:

a)movement the energy and cycling that chemicals between organisms.

b)movement the energy and cycling of chemicals in between organisms and also the environment.

c)factors that affect populace size and how and also why this transforms over time.

d)factors managing the exchange of energy, materials, and also organisms across multiple ecosystems.

e)how one organism’s structure, physiology, and behavior allow it come survive.

If you to be hiking increase a mountain, you can observe transitions in biological communities or habitats that are analogous come the changes:

a)in biomes at various latitudes.

b)in different depths in the ocean.

c)in a community through various seasons.

d)in one ecosystem together it evolves end time.

The climograph reflects that:

a)biomes exist in distinct annual temperature and also precipitation ranges and also do not overlap.

b)biomes room controlled more by yearly mean temperature than byannual mean precipitation.

c)tropical forests expectations the largest precipitation selection of any kind of biome.

d)deserts span the largest temperature range of any kind of biome.

e)the largest biome ~ above Earth, in area, is the temperate grassland.

The climograph mirrors that:

a)most biomes require at the very least an median of 200 centimeter of precipitationper year.

b)most biomes require at least an average yearly temperature that 20°C.

c)no biomes exist below 0°C.

d)the desert biome exists within the many wide variety of annual mean precipitation top top Earth.

e)temperate grasslands exist in ~ the many wide range of annual mean temperature on Earth.

Seasons on earth in the Northern and also Southern Hemispheres are led to by:

a)the distance from the earth to the sun an altering over the course of a year.

b)a change in the edge of tilt of earth’s axis transparent the year.

c)the angle of the sun’s light ray striking Earth transforming as the earth orbits the sunlight with a consistent tilt.

d)the rotation the the planet on its own axis.

e)a combination of b and also e

c) the angle of the sun’s beam striking Earth changing as the planet orbits the sunlight with a continuous tilt.


Based purely on the results shown below, in ~ what range of salinities would you suppose to uncover S. Patens in the field however not T. angustifolia?

a)Only S. Patens would flourish at salinities between 60 and100 parts per thousand.

b)Only S. Patens would grow at salinities in between 0 and 100 parts per thousand.

c)Only S. Patens would flourish at salinities between 0 and also 60 parts per thousand.

The shortest salinity level in the greenhouse mimics a freshwater marsh. In the field, S. Patens is typically absent from herbal freshwater marshes. Based on the data, go this show up to be due to salinity or competition?

a)Competition; in ~ zero salinity, the % of maximum biomass was greater for T. angustifolia 보다 for S. Patens, reflecting that S. Patens would certainly not compete also in fresh water.

b)Competition; the can flourish in zero salinity in speculative freshwater marshes without competing neighbors but has reduced biomass in the visibility of neighbors.

c)Salinity; S. Patens can grow in experimental salt marshes, but T. angustifolia cannot.

d)Salinity; S. Patens had actually less biomass in experimental fresh marshes 보다 in salt marshes.

b) Competition; the can flourish in zero salinity in speculative freshwater marshes without competing neighbors yet has lessened biomass in the existence of neighbors.


T. angustifolia is not current in natural salt marshes. Walk this show up to be because of salinity or competition?

a)Salinity; it is missing from speculative salt marsheseven without completing neighbors, and also it walk not thrive in the higher salinity levels in the greenhouse.

b)Salinity; it is not existing in salt marshes.

c)Competition; the grows far better without contending neighbors than v them in the speculative marsh.

d)Competition; S. Patens grows far better than T. angustifolia in experimental salt marshes and therefore must outcompete it.

a)Salinity; the is absent from speculative salt marsheseven without contending neighbors, and also it go not grow in the higher salinity level in the greenhouse.


Oligotrophic lakes are

nutrient-poor and generally oxygen-rich Oligotrophic lakes have less surface ar area loved one to depth 보다 eutrophic lakes

Eutrophic lakes are

nutrient-rich and also often depleted the oxygen in deep zones or throughout if ice spanned in winter



nutrients added to a lake to make it eutrophic (causes algal blooms, at some point removing all oxygen from lake, killing bigger organisms)


Commensalism is ________.

(+/0 interaction) is an interaction in which one species benefits and also the other is no harmed nor helped

Ex: an egret eats insects stirred increase by grazing animals


Mutualism is ____.

(+/+ interaction) is a common interspecific interaction that services both species

Ex: human beings who have pets often tend to be healthy than humans who carry out not have pets.


Positive Interactions room those where _____.

at the very least one varieties benefits and neither is harmed

Ex: Mutualism (+/+ )and Commensalism (+/0)


Parasites that live external of the body of their organize are dubbed _____.



Parasites the live in ~ the human body of their organize are dubbed _____.



Parasitism is ___.

(+/– interaction), one organism, the parasite, derives nourishment from another organism, the host, which is harmed in the process

Ex: the relationship in between a dog and also a blood-sucking tick


Resource Partitioning is _______.

differentiation of environmental niches, enabling comparable species come coexist in a community


Herbivory is _____.

(+/– interaction) refers to an communication in which an herbivore eats parts of a tree or alga


Competition is _____.

(–/– interaction) occurs when types compete for a resource that borders survival and reproductionResources need to be in quick supply because that competition come occur

Ex: both humans and sharks eat fish


Predation is _____.

(+/– interaction) refers to an interaction in i m sorry one species, the predator, kills and also eats the other, the prey

Ex: human eats a deer


Müllerian mimicry is _____.

When 2 or much more unpalatable varieties resemble each other


Batesian mimicry is _____.

When a palatable or harmless species mimics an unpalatable or harmful model


Cryptic coloration is ______.

Camouflage; makes prey daunting to spot


Character displacement is _____.

the tendency of qualities to diverge more in sympatric 보다 in allopatric populations.


The stimulate of the step of primary sequence beginning with glacial retreat as seen at Glacier Bay, Alaska, space ________.

Pioneer, Dryas, Alder, and Spruce stages


A zoonotic microorganism is _________.

transferred to people from other animals


Semelparity describes _____.

an organism that just reproduces when in that lifetime


Iteroparity defines _____.

an organism the reproduces multiple times in that lifetime


What does a an adverse population expansion rate phone call you around the dynamics that the population?

The populace size is increasing instead that decreasing. The populace size is decreasing rather of increasing. The bear rate amounts to the death rate.

b.) The population size is decreasing instead of increasing.


If rmax is doubled, exactly how would the population growth rates change?

The populace growth rates would it is in unchanged. The populace growth rates would be four times what castle were. The populace growth rates would double. The population growth prices would be fifty percent of what they were

c.) The populace growth prices would double


Primary producers are _____.



A measure up of the complete biomass build-up during a given duration of time is called the _________.

Net Ecosystem Production


Detritivores room _________.



A measure of the total primary manufacturing in an ecosystem is called the _________.

Gross main Production


The percent of production transferred from one trophic level come the next-higher level is referred to as ________.

Trophic efficiency


The percent of power stored in fairytale food the is not provided for respiration is the _________.

Production efficiency


Biological augmentation is a procedure that _________.

uses organisms to add essential materials to a degraded ecosystem


A measure of production that is calculate by individually autotrophic respiration from all major production in an ecosystem is dubbed _________.

Net main Production


The region that transitions in between a river and the sea is dubbed a(n) __________.



Rooted plants are discovered only in the _____ zone that a lake.



A thermocline is a ____________.

narrow layer of abrupt temperature readjust in most lakes and the ocean


A _________ compares annual temperatures and rainfall in various _________.

Climograph; biomes


Zonation in aquatic zones includes all of the following other than the ________ zone.

littoral abyssal detritus pelagic photic



The an ar that is identified by a substantial realm that open, blue water is referred to as the _________ zone.

oceanic pelagic


The an ar that is regularly submerged in between the land and also the ocean is dubbed the _________ zone.



An antagonistic social communication used to defend a bounded physical space is called __________.



An oak tree produces countless acorns, however very couple of grow right into mature oak trees. The oak tree exhibits a __________ survivorship curve.

Type III


A population that is growing logistically __________.

Grows fastest in ~ an intermediate populace density


Assuming the r has actually a hopeful value, in the formula dN/dt = rmaxN (K - N)/K, the variable rN tends to reason the population to __________.

Grow increasingly rapidly


The principle that summarizes the aggregate land and also water area required by each person to develop all sources he or she needs and absorb every waste that or she produce is referred to as the _________.

An environmental footprint


Organisms the live in a homogenous abiotic environment and cooperate to prevent being eaten would likely present a(n) __________ pattern of dispersion.



Life background traits that space favored in uncrowded atmospheres are recognized as _________.



Life background traits that space favored in ~ high populace densities are known as _________.



A survivorship curve the represents high death rates because that the young is a ________ curve.

Type III


A group of people of a solitary species living in the same general area is called a _________.



A graph the plots the number of individuals who are alive at details ages is referred to as _________.

a survivorship curve


A graph the the variety of individuals every unit area or volume is dubbed a ____.

Density curve


A review of the survival pattern that a populace and no a graph is referred to as a _____.

A life table


A group of individuals of the exact same age, from birth till all the people are dead is dubbed a ____.



The study of an essential statistics that populations and also how those statistics adjust over time is well-known as____.



Mechanisms the density-dependent selection include all of the following except _______.

an illness the size of the brood predation vain for sources territoriality

The dimension of the brood


The pattern of spacing amongst individuals in ~ the boundaries of the population is well-known as _____.



The variety of individuals per unit area or volume is well-known as _____.



The difference between density and also dispersion is that __________.

Density is the variety of individuals every unit area or volume. Dispersion is the sample of spacing amongst individuals in ~ the borders of the population. Density is the overall concentration and dispersion is the spread of the concentration.


Fluctuations in the number of people in a populace from year come year are referred to as _________.

Population dynamics


The difference between immigration and emigration is that _________.

Immigration is the flow of brand-new individuals from other areas whereas emigration is the activity of people out that a population


The motion of individuals or gametes far from centers that high populace density or from your area of origin is referred to as _____.


Dispersal contributes come the worldwide distribution of biology

What are the five biotic factors that impact the circulation of organisms?

Predation Herbivory compete Mutualism Parasitism

Abiotic components affecting the circulation of organisms include:

Temperature Water Oxygen Salinity sunshine Soil most abiotic factors vary in room and time

Imagine that a species of fish supplied to it is in a transfer spawner (producing many eggs that then acquire no succeeding parental care) but has progressed to be a mouthbrooder (holding the eggs in the parent’s mouth till they hatch and then caring because that the young because that a while). Us would intend the survivorship curve the this species to:

transition from type I to kind II or III. Shift from type II to type I. Change from type III to type I or II. Shift from form II to form III. Vary unpredictably.

a) shift from type III to kind I or II.


Population ecologists are mostly interested in

a)understanding how biotic and abiotic factors influence the density, distribution, size, and age framework of populations.

b)the all at once vitality the a populace of organisms.

c)how humans impact the dimension of wild populaces of organisms.

d)studying interactions amongst populations the organisms the inhabit the same area.

e)how populaces evolve together natural selection acts on heritable variations among individuals and changes in gene frequency.

a) understanding exactly how biotic and also abiotic factors influence the density, distribution, size, and age structure of populations.


Low death rates during early and middle life and boost in death rates among older age groups.

Type I

Survivorship Curve


A constant fatality rate end the organism’s lifespan.

Type II

Survivorship Curve


High death rates for the young and a lower death rate for survivors.

Type III

Survivorship Curve


An organism’s life history entails what three key components?

The age at very first reproduction (maturity) How frequently the organism reproduces How numerous offspring are produced per reproductive episode

In ____________ populations, birth rate and death rate do not readjust with populace density.



In ____________ populations, birth prices fall and death boost with rising populace density.


just density-dependent components can regulate populace size

Density-dependent birth and also death rates are influenced by many factors, such as:

Competition because that resources Disease Predation Territoriality Toxic wastes Intrinsic factors

_________ are an example of negative feedback the regulates population growth

Density-dependent birth and also death rates


The exponential development model defines the boost in population size of a population that is not constrained by resources or space. The graph shows the elephant population in Kruger nationwide Park, which appears to have been increasing significantly from 1900 come 1965. Indigenous this graph, you have the right to tell that:

nobody of the elephants died. A female elephant living around 1960 was much more likely to have a baby than a female elephant living about 1920. The elephants adjusted to the brand-new park conditions roughly 1955. The vegetation the elephants eat might support an ext than 5,000 elephants. The an ext elephants over there are, the more tourists will visit the park.

a)the vegetation the elephants eat might support an ext than 5,000 elephants.


You perform a examine on elephants and also find the there room eight elephants every acre. This is a measure of:





a) Density


The european starling make it come the Atlantic coastline of north America over 100 years ago. Fifty years after that, the bird was found in plenty of states transparent the Midwest. This is an example of:






e) Dispersion


A populace of deer grow from 100 come 200 to 600, and also when it it s okay to 600, it levels off. This population must have reached:

a)exponential growth.

b)carrying capacity.

c)logistic growth.

d)exponential capacity.

e)unlimited resources.

b) delivering Capacity


What is the difference between semelparity and iteroparity?

a)Semelparous organisms return to their location of birth to reproduce, yet iteroparous organisms can reproduce anywhere.

b)Semelparous refers only to plants, however iteroparous refers to animals.

c)Semelparous organisms live ~ their first reproduction, yet iteroparous organisms die.

d)Semelparous organisms die after their first reproduction, yet iteroparous biology are capable of recurring reproduction.

d) Semelparous organisms die after their an initial reproduction, but iteroparous organisms are capable of recurring reproduction.


What go a an adverse population growth rate tell you about the dynamics that the population?

a)The birth rate amounts to the fatality rate.

b)The population size is increasing instead the decreasing.

c)The population size is decreasing instead of increasing.

d)The populace is not enduring competition.

e)The populace is not limited by resources.

c) The population is decreasing rather of increasing


The red line reflects the growth predicted by the logistic model, and the black dots show the measured development of the population. Does the measured growth complement the predicted development pattern?

a)No; just a couple of of the black color dots sit top top the red line.

b)Yes; the matches in ~ the beginning and also at the end of the time range.

c)No; the is reduced than the predicted worths in part partsand higher in various other parts.

d)Yes; it matches over the whole time range.

c) No; the is reduced than the predicted worths in some components and greater in various other parts.


What is the predicted carrying capacity the the Daphnia culture?

a)120 Daphnia/50 mL

b)135 Daphnia/50 mL

c)200 Daphnia/50 mL

d)300 Daphnia/50 mL

e)190 Daphnia/50 mL

b) 135 Daphina/50 mL


Did the Daphnia population ever suffer a negative growth rate?

a)From around day 70 to day 105, the populace decreased in size, indicating a an unfavorable growth rate.

b)The populace never skilled a an adverse growth rate because it stabilized ~ 140 days and never visited zero.

c)From about day 20 come day 50 and from day 100 to day 150, the population fell listed below the predicted values, indicating a an unfavorable growth rate.

a) From about day 70 come day 105, the populace decreased in size, denote a negative growth rate


What is the finest biological explanation for why the Daphnia population development rate became an adverse between job 70 and 105?

a)The population’s data identified by the black color dots have a slope that is an adverse during the period.

b)The populace grew larger than the suspect size during that period.

c)The populace exceeded the carrying capacity and started running the end of resources during that period.

d)The population’s fatality rate was higher than the birth rate throughout that period.

c) The populace exceeded the delivering capacity and started running out of resources during that period.


How go emigration affect populace size?

a)The populace will increase in dimension as emigration increases.

b)The populace can endure loss of people who relocate to other regions.

c)The populace gains individuals as result of births.

d) It alters whether the organism reflects a random or uniform distribution.

e)It causes the populace to transition from a clumped to a uniform sample of dispersion.

b) The populace can suffer loss of individuals who relocate to other regions.


What portion of female ground 설 설 in the diagram listed below survive to 7 year old?






c) 1%


Female sea turtles arise from the ocean and crawl increase the beach, lay about 100 egg or more per nest, and then covering the eggs with sand. What deserve to you conclude around sea turtle populations?

a)The populace will boost in size rapidly because of a high reproductive rate.

b)The populace would exhibit a type I survivorship curve if graphed.

c)The populace exhibits high mortality among older period classes.

d)The populace relies on parental care.

e)The populace exhibits high mortality among young individuals.

e) The populace exhibits high mortality among young individuals.


Which of the adhering to statements around the graph below, which reflects the rise in number of two populations of a varieties is correct?

a)It reflects rapid, logistic expansion only in one population.

b)It mirrors that the transporting capacity the the two various populations are different.

c)The red populace (dN / dt = 0.5N) is larger because it proceeds for much more generations.

d)Each populace size is calculate in one instantaneous way by considering current size and also rate the increase.

d) Each population size is calculation in an instantaneous manner by considering present size and also rate that increase.


Which variables define the eco-friendly life history of a species?

A) the age at i m sorry reproduction begins, the frequency of reproduction, and also the number of offspring for each reproductive episode

B) the proportion of females come males, the length of the breeding season, and the variety of offspring because that each reproductive episode

C) the number of offspring created over a lifetime by a breeding pair and also the survivability of the offspring

D) timing reproduction sessions through optimal eco-friendly conditions and also the number of offspring created during each breeding session

E) the quantity of parental care given after birth, the variety of reproductive episodes every year, and also the variety of years females are capable of developing viable offspring

A) the age at i m sorry reproduction begins

the frequency of reproduction, and

the number of offspring because that each reproductive episode


A species’ ________ is the niche potentially populated by that species, while a species’ ________ is the niche actually occupied by that species

Fundamental; realized


The tendency for characteristics come be much more divergent in sympatric populations of 2 species than in allopatric populaces of the same two varieties is called _____?

Character Displacement


Animals with effective chemical defenses often exhibit bright warning coloration, dubbed _____.

Aposematic coloration


Two-species interactions are classified through the affect each species has top top the other. Thus, a competitive interaction is one whereby the populaces of each types are negatively affected by the visibility of the other species, usually due to the fact that each varieties uses the same resources. Niche partitioning enables types to coexist by:

avoiding direct competition. Encouraging mutualistic interactions. Enabling prey come hide native predators. Creating brand-new resources. Permitting abiotic factors, such as climate or nutrient availability, to affect the community.

a) staying clear of direct competition.


Which the the following finest describes resource partitioning?

a)Two species can coevolve come share similar niches.

b)Competitive exclusion results in the success of the premium species.

c)A climax community is reached once no brand-new niches room available.

d)Slight sport in niche allow comparable species come coexist.

e)Differential resource utilization results in the decrease in community types diversity.

d) slim variations in niche allow comparable species to coexist.


What is one difference between the fundamental niche and also the establish niche?

a)The realized niche is larger.

b)The an essential niche is determined by competitors.

c)The realized niche is determined by abiotic resources.

d)Individuals will be found only in the establish niche.

e)The difference is referred to as the populated niche.

d) people will be uncovered only in the realized niche.


How might an ecologist check whether a varieties is occupying all of its an essential niche or just a section of it?

a)Observe if the niche size transforms after the development of a similar species.

b)Measure the adjust in reproductive success as soon as the species is subjected to environmental stress.

c)Observe if the types expands its variety after the removed of a competitor.

d)Study the temperature variety and humidity demands of the species.

c) watch if the species expands its variety after the removal of a competitor.


If two varieties are close competitors, and also one types is experimentally eliminated from the community, the remaining varieties would be meant to _____.

a)change its an essential niche

b)decline in abundance

c)become the target of dedicated parasites

d)expand its establish niche

d) increase its establish niche


The usual spiny computer mouse (Acomys cahirinus) and also the golden spiny mouse (A. Russatus) have the right to occupy basically the same eco-friendly niche in rocky habitats of the middle East and China. They accomplish this by:

personality displacement. Temporal niche partitioning. Eating various foods. Mating at different times that the year. Each occupying their sensible niche.

b) temporal niche partitioning.


Character displacement:

a)can be observed in sympatric populations of 2 species.

b)is normally observed in allopatric populations of 2 species.

c)is normally observed for two types living in widely separated habitats.

d)is the an outcome of niche partitioning.

e)is an interaction in between two species in i m sorry one normally dominates the competition due to its morphology.

a) have the right to be observed in sympatric populaces of 2 species.


An obligate mutualism is an communication in i m sorry at the very least one species cannot make it through without the visibility of the other species; a facultative mutualism is an interaction that services both types but is not required by either species. One reason facultative mutualism is more common is that:

in a facultative mutualism, if the partner becomes extinct, the obligate mutualist will likewise become extinct. In one obligate mutualism, the obligate mutualist is obliged to support its partner. In a facultative mutualism, no partner deserve to depend ~ above the other partner. Facultative mutualisms require much longer periods the time to evolve. In one obligate mutualism, if the partner becomes extinct, the obligate mutualist will likewise become extinct.

e) in one obligate mutualism if the companion becomes extinct, the obligate mutualist will additionally become extinct.


The number of different varieties in the neighborhood is well-known as ____.

Species Richness


The ratio each types represents of all people in the ar is the _____.

Relative abundance


The feeding relationships in between organisms in a neighborhood is the ____.

Trophic structure


The evaporation that water from soil plus transpiration of water from tree is dubbed _____.


is how water returns to the atmosphere during the water cycle

This graph reflects the result of floor pH ~ above microbial diversity. One conclusion girlfriend should draw from this number is:

the higher the floor pH, the greater the microbial diversity. The lower the soil pH, the higher the microbial diversity. Microbes execute not exist in acidic conditions. The researchers couldn’t find any type of acidic or an easy soils. There shows up to be an optimal pH value for maximizingmicrobial diversity.

there shows up to it is in an optimal pH worth for maximizing microbial diversity


Look at the complying with figure, which reflects a partial Chesapeake bay food web. If sea nettles disappeared,

a)there would be fewer fish eggs.

b)there would certainly be more striped bass.

c)there would be under zooplankton.

d)striped bass would have less food to eat.

e)fish larvae would decrease in abundance.

b) there would certainly be much more striped bass.


In rocky intertidal neighborhoods of western north America, Robert Paine gotten rid of Pisaster, an uncommon starfish, and also measured types diversity. He discovered that varieties diversity dropped substantially when Pisaster was not present. From this, we can conclude that:

uncommon varieties are more an important to the community than usual species. Predators space more crucial to the community than prey. ​Pisaster most likely consumed the leading competitors. Robert Paine’s experiment was poorly designed. Remove one varieties always harms the community.

c) ​Pisaster most likely consumed the dominant competitors.


Disturbance is an important component of sequence because it:

a)removes keystone species.

b)changes the biology from one sort to another.

c)introduces invasive species.

d)is associated with humans.

e)tends to promote earlier successional stages.

e) has tendency to promote previously successional stages


Disturbance is hypothesized to it is in the most useful in state of raising biodiversity at:

a)low levels.

b)high levels.

c)random intervals.

d)moderate levels.

e)intense levels.

d) moderate levels


A unidirectional affect on biomass from lower to greater trophic level is called:

a)an intermediate control.

b)a bottom-up model.

c)a top-down model.

d)a restored state.

b) a bottom-up model


Some bird follow moving swarms of military ants in the tropics. Together the ants march follow me the forest floor searching insects and small vertebrates, bird follow and also pick off any type of insects or tiny vertebrates the fly or jump out of the means of the ants. This instance is an instance of what kind of types interaction in between the birds and the ants?

parasitism mutualism commensalism predation

c) commensalism


Which that the following defines mutualism:






Answer: c. Mutualism is a partnership in which both organisms benefit from the relationship.


Plants farming beneath and completely dependent upon the shade and also dim light detailed by the canopy of high trees is an instance of which sort of varieties interaction?






c) Commensalism


Which of the adhering to terms is used by ecologists to define the neighborhood interaction whereby one organism renders the environment much more suitable for another organism?

A) parasitism B) mutualism C) inhibition D) facilitation E) commensalism

D) facilitation


The energetic hypothesis and also dynamic stability hypothesis are concepts that attempt to explain:

A) plant defenses against herbivores. B) the size of food chains. C) the advancement of mutualism. D) source partitioning. E) vain exclusion.

B) the length of food chains


The lot of light energy converted to chemical energy by autotrophs throughout a offered time period is _____.

Primary Production


__________ build molecules themselves making use of photosynthesis or chemosynthesis as an energy source.



_____________ count on the biosynthetic calculation of various other organisms



Primary producers are _______.



Primary consumers are _________.



Secondary consumers are _________.



Tertiary consumers room ________.

Carnivores the feed on various other carnivores


Detritivores are ______.

heterotrophs that derive their power from detritus, nonliving organic matter

AKA: decomposers


The complete primary manufacturing is known as the ecosystem’s _____.

Gross main Production (GPP)


__________ is GPP minus energy used through autotrophs for respiration (Ra).

Net primary Production (NPP)

NPP represents new biomass included to the totality ecosystem throughout a offered time

NPP = GPP – Ra


___________ is a measure up of the total biomass (not simply biomass of producers) buildup during a provided period

Net Ecosystem manufacturing (NEP)

NEP is gross main production minus the full respiration of all organisms (RT) in an ecosystem



In marine and also freshwater ecosystems, both _____ and______ regulate primary production.

light; nutrients


_______ is the facet that need to be added for manufacturing to increase in an area.

Limiting nutrient


________and ________ are the nutrients that most frequently limit maritime production.

Nitrogen; phosphorous


Experiments in the Sargasso Sea in the subtropical Atlantic s showed the the micronutrient _________ can additionally limit main production



In terrestrial ecosystems, __________ and ___________affect major production top top a huge scale.

Temperature; moisture


________ production of one ecosystem is the lot of chemical energy in food convert to new biomass during a given period of time.



What is the most important function of photosynthetic organisms in one ecosystem?

a)converting not natural compounds into organic compounds

b)absorbing solar radiation

c)producing essential detritus because that decomposers

d)dissipating heat

e)recycling power from various other trophic levels

a) converting not natural compounds right into organic compounds


The first law of thermodynamics:

a)states that power can it is in destroyed.

b)states that energy can be created.

c)states that power can be transformed and also transferred butnot produced or destroyed.

d)states that the full energy in a device will diminish as power is offered up.

e)states that energy is cycled in ~ an ecosystem.

c) says that energy can it is in transformed and transferred butnot developed or destroyed.


Imagine the an arctic fox has just captured its prey, one arctic sea bird, and also begins to consume it. In what way will the power in the bird be transferred or transformed?

The meat of the bird will certainly be digested and also the organic molecule of fats, proteins, etc. Will certainly be took in and delivered by the fox’s blood vessels to cells. The binding in the organic molecule of energy uncovered in the meat of the bird will be damaged down and will create both ATP and also heat. The power held in ~ the meat of the bird will certainly enter and also remain in the fox forever. Both a and b

d) both a and also b


Which of the following is accurate regarding the 2nd law the thermodynamics?

a)As power is transferred or transformed, a certain part of the energy is destroyed.

b)Energy will not cycle within an ecosystem for very long,and lot of the full energy entering will be lost as heat.

c)Energy cycles within an ecosystem for long periods that time.

d)Incoming solar radiation energy will every be took in by plants throughout photosynthesis.

b) energy will no cycle in ~ an ecosystem for an extremely long, and also much that the total energy entering will certainly be shed as heat.


Following the second law of thermodynamics, what is inefficient around the fox eat the arctic bird?

a)The bird’s power will just last so long.

b)Although every the power in organic bond of the flesh of the bird is transferred to the fox, cool temperature require continuous predation.

c)Some the the power consumed by the fox will certainly be offered to create ATP in that cells, but another portion of the power will be shed as heat.

d)Nothing is inefficient about it.

c) some of the power consumed by the fox will be supplied to generate ATP in that cells, but another section of the energy will be lost as heat.


Unlike energy, issue cycles within and amongst ecosystems. This way that:

a)an ecosystem cannot lose chemicals from it.

b)ecosystems can obtain chemicals the are provided up from other ecosystems.

c)when models are developed for ecosystems, every one of the products should be accounting for.

d)matter is being continually convert into warm and back into matter.

e)chemicals save on computer energy, however energy doesn’t contain chemicals.

c) as soon as models are built for ecosystems, all of the materials should be accounted for.


The resource of the loss of warm from the main producers and also primary consumers shown listed below is heat produced during to move respiration.

a) True

b) False

a) True


Gross major productivity is higher than net main productivity. The difference between the 2 is:

a)the amount of power producers burn when theymetabolize.

b)typically the ratio between the biomass that producers and the biomass the consumers.

c)an necessary measure of ecosystem productivity.

d)energy that is lost into outer an are due to metabolic inefficiencies.

e)energy that is save in tree tissues.

a) the lot of energy producers burn as soon as theymetabolize.


Why room big, predatory pets rare? most big, predatory pets are tertiary consumers, which implies that:

a)they are typically highly territorial.

b)it’s difficult for one ecosystem come support countless of them since so much energy is lost at every level of energy exchange.

c)by overexploitation, humans have caused countless predatory species to become endangered.

d)it take away a long time because that big, predatory animals to evolve.

e)it’s difficult for a big animal to move through dense vegetation.

b) it’s tough for an ecosystem come support countless of them due to the fact that so much power is shed at each level of energy exchange.


The diagram shows a basic model the carbon cycling. Every living things contribute to one or much more components the this diagram. Which arrow(s) show(s) an task or tasks that is/are carry out by every living thing?

cellular respiration photosynthesis fossil fuel burning decomposition a and also d

e) a and d


Why is there a difference in between gross and also net grass production?

a)Some the the grass died due to consumption.

b)Some power was lost as heat during respiration.

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b) Some energy was lost as heat throughout respiration.


What portion of the solar energy that reaches the marsh is included into gross main production?





b) 5.8%


What percent of the solar power that get the wetland is integrated into net primary production?





c) 1.1%


How much power is lost by major producers together respiration in this ecosystem?

a)3,921 kcal/(m2 • yr)

b)6,585 kcal/(m2 • yr)

c)13,735 kcal/(m2 • yr)

d)27,995 kcal/(m2 • yr)

d) 27,995 kcal/(m2 • yr)


How much energy is shed as respiration through the insect population?

a)16 kcal/(m2 • yr)

b)85 kcal/(m2 • yr)

c)224 kcal/(m2 • yr)

d)305 kcal/(m2 • yr)

c) 224 kcal/(m2 • yr)


If every one of the detritus leaving the marsh is plant material, what portion of all net major production pipeline the marsh as detritus each year?