Recognize and apply memory-enhancing strategiesRecognize and also apply effective study techniques

Most the us endure from storage failures of one sort or another, and most of us would like to enhance our memories therefore that we don’t forget wherein we put the automobile keys or, much more importantly, the material we require to understand for one exam. In this section, fine look at some ways to aid you mental better, and also at some methods for much more effective studying.

You are watching: The self-referencing effect refers to ________.


What space some daily ways we have the right to improve ours memory, consisting of recall? To help make sure info goes from temporary memory to long-term memory, you can use memory-enhancing strategies. One strategy is rehearsal, or the mindful repetition of information to it is in remembered (Craik & Watkins, 1973). Think about how friend learned her multiplication tables together a child. You might recall the 6 x 6 = 36, 6 x 7 = 42, and 6 x 8 = 48. Memorizing this facts is rehearsal.

Another strategy is chunking: friend organize information into controllable bits or chunks (Bodie, Powers, & Fitch-Hauser, 2006). Chunking is helpful when trying to remember information like dates and also phone numbers. Rather of trying to remember 5205550467, friend remember the number together 520-555-0467. So, if girlfriend met an amazing person in ~ a party and also you want to psychic his phone number, girlfriend would naturally chunk it, and also you can repeat the number over and over, i m sorry is the rehearsal strategy.

Try this fun activity that employs a memory-enhancing strategy.

You could likewise enhance memory by utilizing elaborative rehearsal: a an approach in which you think about the meaning of the new information and also its relationship to knowledge currently stored in your memory (Tigner, 1999). For example, in this case, you could remember the 520 is an area password for Arizona and the person you met is native Arizona. This would assist you better remember the 520 prefix. If the info is retained, that goes right into long-term memory.

Mnemonic tools are memory aids that aid us organize details for encoding (). They are especially useful when we desire to recall larger bits of information such as steps, stages, phases, and also parts the a mechanism (Bellezza, 1981). Brian requirements to discover the order of the planets in the solar system, yet he’s having a hard time remembering the correct order. His friend Kelly says a mnemonic an equipment that can help him remember. Kelly speak Brian to simply remember the surname Mr. VEM J. SUN, and he can easily recall the exactly order of the planets: Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and also Neptune. You might use a mnemonic maker to assist you psychic someone’s name, a mathematical formula, or the 7 levels that Bloom’s taxonomy.

This is a knuckle mnemonic to assist you mental the number of days in each month. Months v 31 work are stood for by the protruding knuckles and much shorter months loss in the spots between knuckles. (credit: alteration of work by Cory Zanker)


If girlfriend have ever watched the television display Modern Family, you can have viewed Phil Dunphy describe how he remembers names:

The various other day i met this guy named Carl. Now, I could forget the name, however he was wearing a grateful Dead t-shirt. Those a band choose the thankful Dead? Phish. Where carry out fish live? The ocean. What else lives in the ocean? Coral. Hello, Co-arl. (Wrubel & Spiller, 2010)

It appears the more vivid or unexplained the mnemonic, the much easier it is come remember. The vital to using any mnemonic properly is to uncover a strategy that functions for you.

Watch this fascinating TED talks lecture titled “Feats of memory Anyone have the right to Do.” The great is provided by Joshua Foer, a scientific research writer who “accidentally” winner the U. S. Storage Championships. He describes a mnemonic maker called the storage palace.

Some various other strategies the are offered to improve memory include expressive writing and also saying indigenous aloud. Expressive composing helps an increase your short-lived memory, specifically if you write around a traumatic endure in your life. Masao Yogo and also Shuji Fujihara (2008) had actually participants compose for 20-minute intervals numerous times per month. The participants to be instructed to write about a traumatic experience, their best feasible future selves, or a trivial topic. The researchers discovered that this straightforward writing task increased short-term memory volume after 5 weeks, yet only because that the participants who wrote around traumatic experiences. Psychologists can’t describe why this writing task works, but it does.

What if you want to remember items you should pick up at the store? merely say them out loud come yourself. A series of research studies (MacLeod, Gopie, Hourihan, Neary, & Ozubko, 2010) uncovered that speak a word out loud improves your memory for the word because it rises the word’s distinctiveness. Feeling silly, saying arbitrarily grocery item aloud? This technique works equally well if you just mouth the words. Using these techniques raised participants’ memory for the indigenous by much more than 10%. These approaches can likewise be offered to help you study.


Based ~ above the info presented in this chapter, here are some strategies and suggestions to assist you hone her study methods (). The an essential with any of these techniques is to figure out what works finest for you.


Use elaborative rehearsal: In a famous article, Craik and also Lockhart (1972) discussed their id that information we process more deeply goes into long-term memory. Their concept is dubbed levels the processing. If we desire to remember a piece of information, we have to think around it much more deeply and also link the to other information and memories to do it more meaningful. Because that example, if we are trying to remember that the hippocampus is connected with memory processing, we could envision a hippopotamus with terrific memory and then us could far better remember the hippocampus.Apply the self-reference effect: as you go with the process of elaborative rehearsal, it would be even much more beneficial to do the material you room trying come memorize personally coherent to you. In various other words, exploit the self-reference effect. Write notes in your own words. Write definitions from the text, and also then rewrite them in your own words. Said the material to something girlfriend have currently learned for one more class, or think how you can apply the principles to your own life. When you execute this, friend are structure a net of retrieval cues the will help you accessibility the material when you desire to remember it.Don’t forget the forgetting curve: as you know, the details you find out drops off swiftly with time. Also if you think you know the material, examine it again right prior to test time to boost the likelihood the info will remain in your memory. Overlearning can help prevent storage decay.Rehearse, rehearse, rehearse: testimonial the product over time, in spaced and also organized study sessions. Organize and study her notes, and take exercise quizzes/exams. Link the brand-new information come other info you already know well.Be mindful of interference: To mitigate the likelihood that interference, study during a quiet time without disturbances or distractions (like tv or music).Keep moving: Of food you currently know that practice is an excellent for her body, however did you likewise know that also an excellent for her mind? Research argues that continual aerobic practice (anything that gets her heart price elevated) is useful for memory (van Praag, 2008). Aerobic practice promotes neurogenesis: the expansion of new brain cells in the hippocampus, one area the the brain known to play a duty in memory and learning.Get enough sleep: when you are sleeping, your mind is still at work. Throughout sleep the mind organizes and also consolidates details to it is in stored in permanent memory (Abel & Bäuml, 2013).Make usage of mnemonic devices: as you learned previously in this chapter, mnemonic devices often help us to remember and recall information. There are different varieties of mnemonic devices, such together the acronym. One acronym is a word created by the very first letter of every of the native you desire to remember. Because that example, also if you live close to one, you could have challenge recalling the name of every five great Lakes. What if i told you come think of the word Homes? residences is one acronym the represents Huron, Ontario, Michigan, Erie, and Superior: the five an excellent Lakes. Another kind of mnemonic device is one acrostic: you make a expression of all the an initial letters of the words. For example, if you room taking a mathematics test and you are having difficulty remembering the stimulate of operations, recalling the adhering to sentence will aid you: “Please Excuse mine Dear Aunt Sally,” because the order of mathematical to work is Parentheses, Exponents, Multiplication, Division, Addition, Subtraction. There additionally are jingles, which room rhyming tunes the contain key words concerned the concept, such as i before e, except after c.

There are many ways to combat the inevitable failures of our memory system. Some common strategies that deserve to be offered in everyday situations include mnemonic devices, rehearsal, self-referencing, and also adequate sleep. These very same strategies also can assist you to study an ext effectively.

When you are learning just how to pat the piano, the declare “Every good boy walk fine” can help you remember the notes E, G, B, D, and F because that the present of the treble clef. This is an example of a (an) ________.


According come a examine by Yogo and Fujihara (2008), if you want to improve your short-lived memory, you have to spend time writing about ________.

your best possible future selfa traumatic life experiencea trivial topicyour grocery list

The self-referencing effect refers to ________.

making the material you space trying come memorize personally meaningful to youmaking a expression of every the very first letters that the indigenous you are trying to memorizemaking a word created by the first letter of every of the indigenous you room trying come memorizesaying indigenous you want to remember the end loud to yourself

Memory aids that assist organize info for encoding space ________.

mnemonic devicesmemory-enhancing strategieselaborative rehearsaleffortful processing


Critical reasoning Questions

What is the self-reference effect, and how can it aid you study more effectively?

The self-reference result is the tendency an individual to have much better memory for info that relates to oneself than info that is not personally relevant. You have the right to use the self-reference effect to called the product to something you have currently learned for another class, or think just how you can use the principles to your life. When you execute this, girlfriend are structure a net of retrieval cues that will help you accessibility the material when you want to remember it.

See more: If X And Y Are Positive Integers What Is The Value Of Xy, : Data Sufficiency (Ds)

You and also your roommate spent every one of last night researching for your psychology test. Girlfriend think you recognize the material; however, you suggest that you study again the following morning one hour prior to the test. Your roommate asks friend to define why girlfriend think this is a an excellent idea. What execute you phone call her?

You remind her around Ebbinghaus’s forgetting curve: the information you learn drops off quickly with time. Also if girlfriend think you know the material, you must study the again right before test time to boost the likelihood the info will remain in your memory. Overlearning can aid prevent warehouse decay.

What is an reliable study an approach that you have used? exactly how is it similar to/different native the strategies suggested in this chapter?


chunkingorganizing info into manageable bits or chunkselaborative rehearsalthinking around the meaning of the new information and its relation to knowledge already stored in your memorylevels the processinginformation the is assumed of more deeply becomes an ext meaningful and thus better committed come memorymemory-enhancing strategytechnique to assist make sure details goes from short-lived memory to permanent memorymnemonic devicememory aids that assist organize details for encoding