Learning Outcomes

Explain the primary attributes of management.Differentiate in between the planning, organizing, leading, and also controlling attributes of management.

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We have defined management as a process to accomplish organizational goals. A process is a collection of tasks that are ongoing and interrelated. Ongoing way that the activities are not done in a linear, step-by-step fashion where obligation is passed from one task to the next. Instead, the activities are ongoing as new activities space started. Interrelated means that the results of each task influence the other activities and tasks. That is the obligation of administration to see that essential activities are done properly (in the best possible way) and also effectively (doing the best thing).

The management process is composed of four primary attributes that managers must perform: planning, organizing, leading, and controlling. The is vital to realize that the management procedure is not always linear. The does not constantly start through planning and also continue through each action until organizational objectives are completed because it is not possible to plan for every trouble the company will face. Together the management procedure proceeds, changes and also modifications space made once unforeseen occasions arise. Supervisors make sure the necessary transforms are implemented and that the unity and also integrity the the entire process is maintained.

The crucial functions in the management procedure are connected, yet not constantly linear.


Planning method defining performance objectives for the organization and also determining what actions and resources are needed to accomplish the goals. With planning, management defines what the future that the organization have to be and how to gain there. Strategic plans are permanent and impact the whole organization. A strategic arrangement bridges the gap in between what an company is and what it will certainly become. Tactical plans interpret strategic plan into particular actions that need to be implemented by departments throughout the organization. The tactical plan defines what has to be done, that will perform it, and also the resources necessary to do it.

For instance, remind the instance used in ~ the start of this module. It defined how ThyssenKrupp AG made decision to end up being an elevator manufacturing and also servicing agency because of increased competition from Chinese steel. The management of the company set a goal of deriving the majority of that revenue native elevator-related activities. To carry out this, the monitoring team do plans to develop partnerships or take over existing elevator companies. The team devised plans to develop brand-new human resources and to obtain other product resources. The agency also had actually to divest currently steel-related sources to raise resources for the brand-new initiative. This instance is a long-term strategic arrangement that will certainly take years to complete and require many alters along the way. Yet it beginning by specifying a goal and also a preliminary path to achieve it.


Once plans are made, decisions need to be made about how to ideal implement the plans. The organizing role involves deciding exactly how the company will be structured (by departments, matrix teams, job responsibilities, etc.). Organizing requires assigning authority and responsibility to various departments, allocation resources throughout the organization, and also defining exactly how the activities of groups and also individuals will be coordinated.

In the situation of ThyssenKrupp AG, the management had to determine how to assistance two really different to adjust of activities if it to be to attain its permanent goal. Monitoring needed to proceed steel production tasks to administer continuity the funds as the focus gradually change to elevator production. It likewise had to develop new skills and also resources to build the that company elevator capabilities. A new organizational structure was necessary that might support both business activities as one to be downsized and the other constructed up.


Nearly whatever that is accomplished in an organization is excellent by people. The ideal planning and also organizing will not be effective if the human being in the organization are not willing to support the plan. Leaders usage knowledge, character, and also charisma to create enthusiasm and also inspire initiative to achieve goals. Managers must likewise lead by interacting goals throughout the organization, by building commitment to a common vision, by creating shared values and culture, and also by encouraging high performance. Managers deserve to use the power of reward and also punishment come make civilization support plans and goals. Leaders inspire human being to assistance plans, producing belief and also commitment. Leadership and management skills are not the same, but they can and do appear in the most reliable people.

It is very difficult to motivate world when to plan involve radical change, an especially if they include downsizing and layoffs. Many people are normally resistant come change. When the change way loss of tasks or status, people will be an extremely resistant. At ThyssenKrupp, the labor unions vehemently protest the change from steel production to elevator manufacturing. Although the people affiliated in the new business features were excited by the plans, people connected with steel production felt abandoned and demotivated. Administration would have actually been way to gain union support for its vision the the company’s brand-new future.


There is a popular military speak that says no battle plan survives call with the enemy. This indicates that to plan is crucial for do preparations, however when it’s time to implement the plan, every little thing will no go as planned. Unexpected things will happen. Observing and responding come what in reality happens is dubbed controlling. Controlling is the procedure of monitoring activities, measure up performance, comparing outcomes to objectives, and making modifications and corrections once needed. This is often described as a feedback loop, as presented in the illustration of a product design feedback loop.

Product design feedback loop

Controlling may be the most essential of the four management functions. It gives the info that keeps the corporate score on track. By managing their organizations, managers keep informed of what is happening; what is working and what isn’t; and also what needs to be continued, improved, or changed. ThyssenKrupp had small experience in elevator manufacturing when it was making plans. It to be developing new products and also processes and entering brand-new markets. The administration knew it might not anticipate all the obstacles it would certainly encounter. Close monitoring as the setup progressed permitted the agency to do changes and state-of-the-art developments that have resulted in a an extremely successful transition.

Watch the following video clip for summary of the management process and a an easy example of just how the management features work together.

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Who Directs every Function?

Although these functions have been introduced in a certain order, it must be evident that the different tasks happen in ~ the exact same time in any type of one organization. The control role ensures that new plans must be created. Leaders often step up as necessary when a crisis or unexpected bump demands prompt action. All supervisors perform every one of these features at various times, return a manager’s position or level in the organization will influence how much of his or she time is spent planning together opposed to leading or come controlling. We will certainly look an ext closely at different species of supervisors in the following section.