Decision make is a vital process in ~ the Integrative structure for Understanding and Applying OB. We have actually been encouraging friend to use this frame throughout this book in order to enhance your capacity to fix problems. Usage of the frame helps girlfriend identify and also choose alternate solutions that lead to a preferred outcome. This process varies follow me a continuum of rational to nonrational. Four steps in making reasonable decisions space (1) identify the problem, (2) generate alternative solutions, (3) evaluate choices and select a solution, and (4) implement and evaluate the solution. Examples of nonrational models incorporate (1) satisficing and also (2) intuition.

You are watching: Which of the following is one of the assumptions underlying nonrational models of decision making?

Decision do matters deep in your personal and occupational life. Let's take into consideration the influence of decisions made by a couple of college graduates during the interview process. One project applicant took a nonemergency call on his smartphone 15 minutes right into the interview. Do you think this decision make a optimistic impression? an additional decided to lug his father right into a 45-minute interview: The recruiter to be shocked. Paula Welch, a Cigna HR representative, similarly noted how one recent grad inquiry his dad to call and negotiate a higher salary after ~ receiving a job offer. Here's a really good decision: A college an elderly brought she cat come the interview in a cage, and also then proceeded to play with it throughout the interview. The end results of these decisions were negative in all cases.6

Decision making entails identifying and choosing alternate solutions that result in a desired state the affairs. The above examples illustrate how one's decision make affects the possibilities of gaining a project after graduation, yet the prominence of decision making is lot broader. As a instance in point, the annual worldwide Leadership breakthrough study carried out by Training newspaper uncovered that an important thinking/problem fixing was the 2nd most important competency desired by institutions in 2012 and also 2013.7 You would certainly be well served to enhance your decision-making skills.

Let's look in ~ two different methods managers deserve to use to make decisions. They have the right to follow a rational version or number of nonrational models.

Rational Decision Making: supervisors Make Logical and also Optimal Decisions

The rational version of decision making explains just how managers should make decisions. the assumes that supervisors are completely objective and possess complete information when making decisions. Decision thus demonstrate excellent logic and optimize the organization's finest interests.

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There are 4 generic stages connected with rational decision making (see figure 11.1).



Stage 1: recognize the trouble or Opportunity—Determining the Actual versus the preferable We characterized a problem in chapter 1 as a distinction or gap between an actual and desired situation. By currently you recognize that problem identification is the very first stop in solving any type of problem. Us did not cite in our earlier discussion, however, the managers also have to do decisions concerning opportunities. An opportunity represents a situation in which there space possibilities to carry out things that cause results that exceed goals and expectations. because that example, US clinical schools have to prepare to create 5,000 an ext graduates a year through 2019. Unfortunately, this wonderful possibility will call for some challenging decisions because the number of funded residencies has been frozen since 1997. Residencies entail the three to seven years of extr on-the-job cultivate that clinical students need before they deserve to practice medicine on their own. Without an ext residency positions, the combination of American clinical Colleges predicts a shortage the 62,900 medical professionals by 2015, and also potentially as countless as 140,000 through 2025.8

Whether you confront a difficulty or an opportunity, the goal is constantly the same: to make renovations that readjust conditions native their current state to a an ext desirable one. This calls for you come diagnose the reasons of the trouble (or the nature that the opportunity).

Stage 2: Generate alternate Solutions—Both the Obvious and the creative For many civilization this is the exciting component of decision making, the step where you acquire to be creative, think external the box, and also share your concepts of exactly how things have to be done. Brainstorming, because that instance, is a common technique used by both individuals and groups to create potential solutions. Brainstorming is discussed later in this chapter. Unfortunately, a research study of 400 strategic decisions revealed that supervisors struggled throughout this stage since of three crucial decision-making blunders:

1. Rushing come judgment. supervisors simply make decisions too easily without considering all relevant information.

1. Selecting readily easily accessible ideas or solutions. supervisors take the simple solution there is no rigorously considering alternatives. This deserve to tend to take place when emotions are high about the problem at hand.

1. Making bad allocation of sources to study alternate solutions. managers don't invest the resources to effectively study the problem and alternate courses that action.

Decision makers for this reason are urged to sluggish down when making decisions, to advice a broader set of alternatives, and also to invest in examining a greater variety of potential solutions.9 The Problem-Solving application on the following page illustrates how these blunders might have affected J.P. Morgan Chase's an answer to the “London whale” trading difficulty in 2012 and also 2013.

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problem addressing application

J.P. Morgan chase Is trying to deal with the London Whale trade Fiasco

J. P. Morgan Chase is just one of the largest banks in the world, and also it ran afoul of regulators in 2012 and 2013 in what is referred to as the “London whale” fiasco. Since that time, united state regulators have been rigorously investigate the situation.


Jamie Dimon of J.P. Morgan chase testifying to a government committee.

What Happened? Three former London-based traders made huge investment bets that led to a practically $6 billion loss for the company. A French-born employee named Bruno Michel Iksil was dubbed the “London whale” since his bets produced the most losses. After ~ the news originally broke, chase CEO Jamie Dimon referred to the scandal as a “tempest in a teapot.” the later described it together an isolated risk that the bank had taken care of. He wanted the trouble to go away.

Regulators are investigating whether or not these three previous employees, and the financial institution itself, “tried come hide few of the mounting losses throughout the first quarter the this year <2013>.”10 lock think there was a cover-up.

The Company's response Over time Dimon concluded that he underestimate the losses since he “relied top top advice native colleagues the losses wouldn't worsen.” A us Senate dashboard did no agree with this interpretation. The committee concluded that follow “brushed off inner warnings and misled regulators and investors about the score the the casualty tied come the trades.”

Dimon denies this charges, saying that no one at the agency “thought we had actually a huge problem” however rather “we knew we had actually a small problem.” The agency estimated the trouble at $300 million, no $6 billion. In solution to the comment the the company withheld information from regulators, Dimon said, “We tried to tell them however we didn't understand sometimes.”

Dimon is currently vigorously defending the company's integrity and also decisions. That said, “I don't recognize what much more I have the right to say. Negative strategy, badly vetted, bad monitored, badly controlled. Embarrassing. Terrible. Sorry.” He likewise told investors at a conference hosted by Morgan Stanley the “there was no hiding, there to be no lying, there to be no b—s—.”11 He further promised come fight any lawsuits that are filed against the company.

YOUR contact

1. Stop 1: What is the difficulty in this case from CEO Dimon's perspective?

1. Stop 2: i m sorry of the above stage 2 blunders to be committed through Chase?

1. Stop 3: Rolling earlier time, what decisions do you think follow should have actually made when it very first discovered the losses?

Stage 3: Evaluate options and choose a Solution—Ethics, Feasibility, and Effectiveness In this stage, you must evaluate alternatives in terms of numerous criteria. Not just are costs and also quality important, however you should think about the following questions: (1) Is the ethical? (If not, don't think about it.) (2) Is it feasible? (If time is an issue, expenses are high, sources are limited, an innovation is needed, or customers room resistant, for instance, climate the different is not feasible.) (3) will certainly it eliminate the causes and solve the problem?

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Stage 4: Implement and also Evaluate the systems Chosen when a solution is chosen, it requirements implementation. And after implementation, stakeholders need to evaluate how effectively the systems solves the problem. To it is in effective, the solution should remove or significantly reduce the difference in between the earlier, actual difficulty state and the desired outcome. If the gap is no closed, the implementation fails, and also either the difficulty was incorrectly determined or the solution was inappropriately conceived or executed. If the equipment fails, management have the right to return to the very first step, problem identification. If the difficulty was effectively identified, administration should take into consideration implementing one of the formerly identified, however untried, solutions. This procedure can proceed until every feasible solutions have been tried or the difficulty has changed.

What's an excellent and Bad about the rational Model? The rational version is prescriptive, outlining a logical process that managers should use once making decisions. Together such, the rational model is based on the id that managers optimize once making decisions. Optimizing entails solving problems by developing the best possible solution and also is based on a collection of highly desirable conditions—having complete information, leave emotions out of the decision-making process, honestly and also accurately analyzing all alternatives, having abundant and obtainable time and also resources, and also having world willing come implement and also support decisions. Handy experience, of course, tells united state that these problems are all seldom met, and assumptions come the contrary space unrealistic. Herbert Simon in 1978 earn the Nobel Prize because that his work-related on decision making. He put it this way: “The assumptions of perfect rationality space contrary to fact. That is no a question of approximation; they do not even remotely describe the procedures that humans use for making decision in complex situations.”12

That said, there space three benefits of trying to follow a rational procedure as lot as realistically possible:

1. Quality. The quality of decisions might be enhanced, in the feeling that lock follow more logically from all obtainable knowledge and expertise.

1. Transparency. It provides the thinking behind a decision transparent and available to scrutiny.

1. Responsibility. If make public, it uniform the decider from acting on suspect considerations (such as an individual advancement or avoiding bureaucratic embarrassment) and therefore encourages more responsible decisions.13

Nonrational Models of Decision Making: Decision making Does not Follow one Orderly Process

Nonrational models the decision making explain how managers actually make decisions. The models typically develop on presumptions that decision making is uncertain, the decision equipments do no possess finish information, and also that managers struggle to make optimal decisions. Two nonrational models room Herbert Simon's normative model and also the intuition model.

Simon's Normative Model: “Satisfactory Is an excellent Enough” Herbert Simon suggest this model to explain the process that managers actually use once making decisions. The procedure is guided by a decision maker's bounded rationality. Bounded rationality represents the concept that decision equipments are “bounded” or restricted by a selection of constraints as soon as making decisions. these constraints incorporate any personal characteristics or internal and external sources that mitigate rational decision making. An individual characteristics include the limited capacity the the human being mind, personality, and also time constraints. Think about gender: Males have tendency to make an ext risky decisions 보다 females.14 instances of internal resources room the organization's human and social capital, gaue won resources, technology, plant and equipment, and internal processes and also systems. External resources incorporate things the company cannot directly control such as employment levels in the community, resources availability, and also government policies.15 Tom Albanese, former CEO that Rio Tinto, the second largest mining company in the world, skilled these constraints as soon as he determined to obtain Riverside Mining Ltd. (see the example box).

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EXAMPLEBounded Rationality Dooms an acquisition Decision

In 2013 Tom Albanese stepped under as Rio Tinto's CEO ~ a series of bad decisions. One involved the acquisition of Riverside Mining Ltd. Because that $3.7 billion. Albanese to be interested in Riverside's coking-coal operations in Africa.


Through that Diavik Diamond Mine subsidiary, Rio Tinto operates the Diavik mine in the subarctic tundra that Canada's Northwest Territories.

THE fatal DECISION there were few bidders because that Riverside since of “concerns around getting the stole ingredient out of Mozambique's bush country.” The price that coking to be $290 a ton at the time of the acquisition decision in 2011. The price was $165 a ton in January 2013.

“Rio Tinto had actually planned to ship the coal along the Zambezi River, however that strategy confirmed unworkable when the agency ran right into trouble dredging the river and failed to secure government approval for shipments.” The impacts of this decision brought about the company writing down $3 exchange rate of shed costs, and also the resignation that Albanese and also the company's head that strategy, Doug Ritchie.16


1. How does bounded rationality describe what happened in this example?

1. What limit of internal and also external resources—directly identified or implied—acted as limits to the decisions made?

1. What could Albanese have done differently?

Ultimately, this limitations result in the tendency to acquire controllable rather 보다 optimal amounts of information. In turn, this exercise makes it complicated for supervisors to determine all possible alternative solutions. In the lengthy run, the border of bounded rationality reason decision equipments to fail come evaluate all potential alternatives, thereby causing them come satisfice.

Satisficing consists of picking a systems that meets some minimum qualifications, one the is “good enough.” Satisficing resolves problems by producing solutions that space satisfactory, as opposed come optimal. Detect a radio terminal to hear to in your automobile is a great example of satisficing. You can not optimize due to the fact that it is difficult to listen to every stations at the exact same time. You therefore stop searching for a station when you uncover one play a tune you favor or carry out not psychic hearing.

The Intuition Model: “It just Feels Right” numerous entrepreneurs begin businesses top top the basis of intuition. Consider the following:

EXAMPLE Ignoring references from advisers, beam Kroc to buy the McDonald's brand native the McDonald brothers: “I'm no a gambler and I didn't have actually that sort of money, yet my funny bone instinct kept urging me on.” skipping the reality that 24 publishing residences had rubbish the book and also her own publishing home was opposed, Eleanor Friede gambled top top a “little nothing book,” dubbed Jonathan Livingston Seagull: “I feel there were truths in this an easy story that would make it an worldwide classic.”17

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Intuition represents judgments, insights, or decisions that “come to mind on your own, without explicit awareness the the evoking cues and of food without explicit evaluation of the validity of these cues.”18 Unfortunately, the use of intuition does not constantly lead to blockbuster decisions such together those by beam Kroc or Eleanor Friede. To enhance your expertise of the duty of intuition in decision making, this section reviews a model of intuition and also discusses the pros and also cons of making use of intuition to make decisions.

A model of Intuition number 11.2 gift a model of intuition. Note that the model shows two creates of intuition:

1. A holistic hunch represents a judgment that is based upon a subconscious integration of info stored in memory. people using this type of intuition may not be able to explain why they want to do a details decision, except that the selection “feels right.”

1. Automated experiences represent a selection that is based upon a familiar situation and also a partially subconscious application of previously learned info related to the situation. for example, when you have actually years of experience driving a car, you react to a selection of cases without mindful analysis.



SOURCES: Based in component on D. Kahneman and also G. Klein, “Conditions because that Intuitive Expertise,” American Psychologist, September 2009, 515–526; E. Sadler-Smith and E. Shefy, “The Intuitive Executive: Understanding and also Applying ‘Gut Feel’ in Decision Making,” Academy of monitoring Executive, November 2004, 76–91; and C. C. Miller and R. D. Ireland, “Intuition in strategy Decision Making: friend or opponent in the Fast-Paced 21st Century,” Academy of management Executive, February 2005, 19–30.

In figure 11.2, you can see the intuition is represented by two unique processes. One is automatic, involuntary, and mostly effortless. The second is rather the the contrary in the it is controlled, voluntary, and also effortful. Because that example, as soon as trying to answer one of the your Thoughts? concerns at the finish of the example boxes, you might spontaneously have response pop right into your mind based on your recollection the what you formerly read (an automatic process). Upon further reflection (controlled process), however, you might decide your initial thought is wrong and also that you need to go ago and reread some material to come at an additional answer. This consequently may reason novel concepts to come to mind, and also the two processes continue. This intuitive procedures are influenced by 2 sources: expertise and also feelings (see figure 11.2). Expertise represents one individual's combined explicit knowledge (i.e., information that can conveniently be put right into words) and also tacit knowledge (i.e., information acquired through experience that is challenging to express and also formalize) regarding an object, person, situation, or decision opportunity.

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EXAMPLE Steve tasks used a combination of explicit and tacit expertise to create brand-new products. The feel component reflects the automatic, underlying result one experiences in solution to an object, person, situation, or decision opportunity. An intuitive an answer builds on the interaction in between one's expertise and feelings in a provided situation.

1. Pros and Cons of utilizing Intuition. There space two services of utilizing intuition to make decisions. (1) It deserve to speed up the decision-making process, which is an important when you space under time constraints.19 (2) the is advantageous when resources are limited. Top top the downside, however, intuition is topic to the same species of biases linked with rational decision making, biases we comment on in the next section the this chapter. In addition, the decision device may have difficulty convincing others the the intuitive decision renders sense, therefore a an excellent idea may be ignored.

1. What Is the Bottom heat on Intuition? We think that intuition and rationality room complementary and also that managers should attempt to usage both once making decisions.20 We hence encourage you to usage intuition when making decisions. You can build your intuitive awareness by making use of the referrals in Table 11.1.




1. Open up the closet

To what extent do you endure intuition; trust your feelings; counting on intuitive judgments; suppress hunches; covertly rely upon gut feel?

2. Don't mix up your I's

Instinct, insight, and intuition room not synonymous; practice distinguishing amongst your instincts, your insights, and also your intuitions.

3. Elicit an excellent feedback

Seek feedback on her intuitive judgments; develop confidence in your gut feel; develop a learning environment in i m sorry you deserve to develop much better intuitive awareness.

4. Acquire a feeling for your batting average

Benchmark your intuitions; get a feeling for just how reliable her hunches are; questioning yourself just how your intuitive judgment can be improved.

5. Use imagery

Use imagery quite than words; literally visualize potential future scenarios the take your gut feelings right into account.

6. Beat devil's advocate

Test out intuitive judgments; progressive objections come them; create counterarguments; probe exactly how robust gut feel is when challenged.

7. Capture and validate her intuitions

Create the inner state to give your intuitive mental the liberty to roam; record your creative intuitions; log them before they space censored by rational analysis.

Improving your Intuitive Awareness do you think gift intuitive is a great thing? would you like to become much more intuitive? If yes, then you will discover the Self-Assessment on the next page valuable.

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Am i Intuitive?

Go to and also complete Self-Assessment 11.1 come assess her intuitiveness. Climate answer the following questions:

1. What is your level of intuitiveness? do you agree v this assessment?

1. What are the two greatest items driving your intuition? as soon as do you have tendency to usage these characteristics?

1. What space your 2 lowest items that detract from your intuition? as soon as do they obtain in the way of your making intuitive decisions?


Use the outcomes of Self-Assessment 11.1 and Table 11.1 come answer the following:

1. Research the recommendations in Table 11.1 and evaluate every one as either a stamin of yours—something friend do—or a weakness—something you have tendency not come do.

1. For those referrals in Table 11.1 the you think can be her weaknesses, think about whether results from the intuition Self-Assessment can aid you to revolve the weaknesses to strengths.

1. Construct a plan to further build your self-assessment toughness on the basis of the recommendations in Table 11.1 for increasing your intuitive awareness.

Integrating Rational and Nonrational Models using the idea that decisions room shaped by characteristics of both problems and the contexts in i m sorry decision makers have to solve the problems, consultants David Snowden and Mary Boone have actually come up v their own strategy that responds to the an overwhelming environments encountering today's organizations. Lock essentially combine rational and also nonrational models through identifying four kinds the decision environments and an effective an approach of decision making for each.21

1. Simple. A simple context is stable, through clear cause-and-effect relationships, for this reason the best answer deserve to be agreed upon.

Effective: The rational model. Decision makers gather information, categorize it, and also respond in an developed way.

1. Complicated. over there is a clear relationship between cause and effect, however some civilization may not see it, and more than one solution might be effective.

Effective: The reasonable model. Decision machines investigate and analyze options.

1. Complex. over there is one best answer, yet many unknowns obscure cause-and-effect relationships.

Effective: Intuition. Decision machines start by experimenting, trial and error options, and probing to check out what can happen together they look because that a creative solution.

1. Dynamic/Chaotic. Cause-and-effect relationships change so fast that no sample emerges.

Effective: Both intuition and evidence-based decision making, discussed in ar 11.3 the this chapter. Decision machines act an initial to develop order and also then find areas where it is feasible to determine patterns for this reason that facets of the trouble can it is in managed.22



MAJOR question

It's tough to be rational. What space the biases that acquire in the way?

THE BIGGER picture

You and everyone else use “heuristics” as soon as making decisions. By better understanding the nature the these miscellaneous rules of thumb, you have the right to improve your capability to make an ext rational decisions. Heuristics fall into eight categories: accessibility bias, representativeness bias, confirmation bias, anchoring bias, overconfidence bias, possession bias, framing bias, and also escalation of commitment bias.

Ever had actually a hard time explaining why girlfriend made a certain decision? It would certainly be typical because all of us usage shortcuts or “rules the thumb” as soon as making decisions. Academics speak to them judgmental heuristics, express “hyur-ris-tiks.” Judgmental heuristics represent cognitive shortcuts or biases that are provided to leveling the procedure of make decisions.23

There space both pros and also cons come the use of heuristics. Due to the fact that these shortcuts derive from knowledge gained from previous experience, castle can aid managers make decisions. In ~ the very same time, however, they have the right to lead to poor decisions, an especially for human being facing significant time constraints, an unfortunately notorious example being primary health treatment doctors. Because that example, a recent study of medical malpractice cases showed that diagnostic errors, which room partly led to by misapplied judgmental heuristics, result in as much as 160,000 deaths per year. Bad decisions are really costly in this context, in human being suffering and also in plain dollars. Between 1986 and 2010, diagnosis-related errors expense doctors and also hospitals about $38.8 billion.24

Here space eight biases that commonly influence decision making:

1. Check bias

1. Overconfidence bias

1. Availability bias

1. Representativeness bias

1. Anchoring bias

1. Possession bias

1. Framing bias

1. Escalation of commitment bias

Knowledge about these biases or heuristics can aid you to stop using them in the wrong case or being blinded by not understanding you room in fact using them.

1. Confirmation Bias. The confirmation predisposition has 2 components. The decision maker (1) subconsciously decides other even prior to investigating why it is the appropriate decision, for example, making a snap decision to acquisition a certain smartphone; and also (2) seeks details that support purchasing this details phone while discounting information that walk not.25

1. Overconfidence Bias. many of us have tendency to be overconfident around estimates or forecasts. For example, most of us regard ourselves as far better than median drivers.26 This predisposition grows in toughness when human being are inquiry moderate to extremely challenging questions fairly than straightforward ones. (See the Problem-Solving applications on the BP Oil Spill.) Entrepreneurs especially fall prey to this predisposition when deciding come start and also sustain brand-new ventures. Sadly, one businessman success frequently leads come investing in a poor opportunity later on on. Knowledgeable investment analysts also were found to be an ext prone to overconfidence.27 our advice: Don't assume that overconfident and also assertive human being have the best recommendations.

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problem resolving application

Heuristics partially to Blame for BP Oil Spill

CNN summed up the months of poor news this way: “The drill rig Deepwater Horizon exploded and also sank in April 2010, killing 11 males aboard and also unleashing one undersea gusher native a BP-owned well dubbed Macondo a mile under water. That took three months to cap the well, and also federal public official estimate virtually 5 million barrels of oil—more 보다 200 million gallons—poured into the Gulf in that time.”28

What Happened? according to Bob Bea, an engineering professor at the university of California, Berkeley, “Technological disasters, like the BP oil spill, monitor a well-worn ‘trail that tears.’” Bea has investigated 630 different types of disasters and is an expert on offshore drilling.

The linked Press interviewed Bea in the spill's aftermath. Bea thinks the BP spill falls into the group of tragedies that an outcome when an organization simply ignores warning indications through overconfidence and also incompetence. The pointed to conference testimony: BP ignored problems with a dead battery, leaky cement job, and loosened hydraulic fittings.

“Disasters don't happen due to the fact that of ‘an angry empire,’” Bea said. “It's hubris, arrogance, and also indolence.”

Because cutting-edge modern technology often functions flawlessly, Bea said, civilization get lulled right into complacency. “Corners acquire cut, troubles ignored. Climate boom.”29


The Deepwater Horizon oil rig disaster.

The Confirmation predisposition at job-related The finance industry saw the disaster together resulting from BP's fail to “debias” that is investigation. “Transocean workers carried out two pressure tests, a positive pressure test and a an unfavorable pressure test,” according to the Quarterly journal of Finance. “The positive pressure test entails increasing the push inside the fine by pump fluid, to see whether fluids leak from the well. . . . The an outcome was favorable.

“The an unfavorable pressure test requires decreasing pressure from the well, to see whether fluids leak. . . . The test results were unusual, and Transocean employees struggled to interpret the readings. Pressure gathered unexpectedly v no clean reason as to why.” This case was considered to it is in “non-problematic.”

“However, other Transocean workers were not convinced that the troubles had been resolved. For example, Wyman Wheeler, who oversaw the drilling crew for twelve hours per day, was not convinced that all was in order. Yet, once Wheeler's change ended at 6 pm his replacement, Jason Anderson, assured both his Transocean coworkers (and for the matter, his BP colleagues) the the press readings to be normal.”30

The last Outcome? BP worked out charges v the united state Department of righteousness by pleading guilty come “11 counts of manslaughter, two misdemeanors, and also a felony count of lying to Congress. BP additionally agreed to four years of federal government monitoring of its safety practices and ethics. . . . Together of February 2013, criminal and civil settlements and payments come a to trust had expense the agency $42.2 billion.”31

YOUR call

1. Stop 1: What was the trouble in this example?

1. Stop 2: how did the confirmation bias and also overconfidence prejudice contribute come this disaster?

1. Stop 3: What would you recommend that BP do differently in the future to protect against such disasters?


Some civilization are fear of flying since they evaluate the opportunities of being in a aircraft crash. Airplane crashes room “low probability” events. Over there was only one huge airplane flying passengers that crashed in 2014, the Malaysian Boeing 777. If you take into consideration all airplane flying about the world, there were 138 and 155 crashes in 2013 and also 2012, respectively.

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1. Availability Bias. The availability heuristic represents a decision maker's propensity to basic decisions on details that is readily available in memory. This leads us to evaluate the importance of details we freshly received or assumed about. The problem, the course, is that recent info is no necessarily the finest or most accurate information.

This prejudice can be sustained by news media, i m sorry likes come emphasize negative or unexplained events, like aircraft crashes or high-school shootings. This heuristic is most likely to cause people to overestimate the occurrence of this unlikely events.32 This bias likewise is partly responsible because that the recency effect noted in Table 4.1 in chapter 4. For example, a manager is more likely to provide an employee a confident performance review if the employee exhibited excellent performance over the last couple of months.

1. Representativeness Bias. The representativeness heuristic is offered when world estimate the probability of an event occurring. It reflects the tendency to evaluate the likelihood of an event occurring based upon one's impressions about similar occurrences. A manager, for example, might hire a graduate indigenous a specific university because the previous three people hired from this university turned out to be an excellent performers. In this case, the “school attended” default is used to facilitate complicated information processing connected with employed interviews. Unfortunately, this faster way can an outcome in a biased decision. Similarly, an individual may believe that he or she can master a brand-new software package in a short duration of time since a different form of software application was straightforward to learn. This estimate may or might not be accurate. Because that example, it might take the individual a much much longer time to find out the brand-new software due to the fact that it involves learning a new programming language.

1. Anchoring Bias. just how would you answer the adhering to two questions? Is the populace of Iraq better than 40 million? What's your ideal guess around the population of Iraq? Was your answer come the 2nd question influenced by the number 40 million argued by the very first question? If yes, friend were impacted by the anchoring bias. The anchoring bias occurs as soon as decision machines are affected by the an initial information received about a decision, also if the is irrelevant. This predisposition happens because initial information, impressions, data, feedback, or stereotypes anchor our succeeding judgments and also decisions.



Hostess Twinkies have been created in a Chicago bakery due to the fact that the 1930s. The firm recently close up door the tree as part of that is re-organization strategy. Employees and also the union were devasted together they believed the manufacturing of Twinkies was part of the company's future.

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1. Hindsight Bias. Imagine you yourself in the adhering to scenario: You space taking an OB course the meets Tuesday and also Thursday, and your professor offers unannounced quizzes each week. It's the Monday prior to a class, and you are deciding whether to research for a potential quiz or to clock Monday night football. 2 of her classmates have decided to clock the game rather than study since they don't think there will be a quiz the next day. The following morning you walk into class and the professor says, “Take the end a sheet of paper for the quiz.” You turn to your friends and say, “I knew us were going to have a quiz; why did i listen to you?” The hindsight prejudice occurs when expertise of result influences ours belief about the probability the we might have guess the outcome earlier. The hazard of this predisposition is that, in retrospect, we get overconfident about our foresight, which leader to bad decisions.33 for example, investors susceptible to this prejudice will confidently think they space predicting an excellent investment opportunities, ~ above the communication of such experiences, only to uncover out the they invest in dogs.34

1. Framing Bias. This predisposition relates to the manner in i m sorry a concern is do or framed. For example, customers have actually been found to choose meat that is framed as “85% skinny meat” rather of “15% fat,” although, of course, they room the same thing. Framing is important since it reflects that our decision are affected by the path in i beg your pardon a trouble or inquiry is framed.35 you are urged to framework decision concerns in alternative ways in bespeak to prevent this bias.

1. Escalation of meeting Bias. The escalation of commitment bias refers to the tendency to stick come an ineffective food of activity when it is unlikely that the negative situation have the right to be reversed. personal examples can include investing an ext money into an old or broken car and also putting an ext effort into improving a personal relationship that is filled with conflict. A company example would certainly be Hostess asking investors come reinvest in the agency during its second bankruptcy. One of the company's lenders explained it this way: “If girlfriend look in the thesaurus at the an interpretation of throwing great money ~ bad, there have to be a picture of Hostess beside it.”36

Researchers recommend the following actions to reduce the escalation of commitment:

5. Collection minimum targets for performance, and have decision machines compare your performance against these targets.

5. Consistently rotate supervisors in crucial positions transparent a project.

5. Encourage decision makers to end up being less ego-involved through a project.

5. Make decision makers mindful of the costs of persistence.37


Using the list of decision-making biases, price the adhering to questions:

1. Think the a bad decision friend made in the last 6 come 12 months.

1. Now think about which the the eight decision-making biases may have actually influenced her decision.

1. Based upon your answer, and also your expertise of referee heuristics, what can you have done differently to prevent the bad decision?

Chapter 11. Decision Making and Creativity

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MAJOR inquiry

How can I more effectively usage evidence-based decision making?


You have the right to improve the top quality of your decisions by in search of the ideal evidence and also the best easily accessible data come make, inform, or assistance the decision. This section of the thing will help you know the role of evidence in decision making and also the relocate toward “big data.”

Interest in the ide of evidence-based decision making stems from 2 sources. The first is the desire to prevent the decision-making biases questioned previously, and the 2nd is research done on evidence-based medicine.38 In health care, the score is to increase the top quality of treatment while to reduce costs. Proponents think that evidence-based decision making (EBDM), i beg your pardon is identified as a process of conscientiously making use of the best easily accessible data and also evidence as soon as making managerial decisions, can help make this happen. Results from its application in various other industries suggests that this is possible.

Consider the applications to dairy farming and professional sports.

EXAMPLE “A Canadian company, dairy Quality, unveiled a brand-new product dubbed Milk Guardian, a tiny black crate that slides ~ above the earlier of an iPhone. A farmer inserts a plastic on slide containing a milk sample from among his cows, and also the maker counts the variety of somatic cells. (A high somatic cabinet count have the right to be an indicator that mastitis, an epidemic of the udder tissue.) counting somatic cells used to need sending milk come an offsite lab and also waiting a mainly or much more for results; utilizing a microscope and also an app, Milk Guardian deserve to analyze a sample on place in six seconds or less. The accessory and app price $1,800.”39


(Left) Milk Guardian offers hardware and also an application to change an iphone phone so it deserve to count somatic cells from a sample to identify udder infection; (right) the Lely Astronaut a4 robot milks cows for this reason farmers can sleep v pre-dawn milking.

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EXAMPLE an ext than 50 percent that NBA basketball teams use EBDM to improve their team's performance.

1. Wearable monitors. throughout practice, for example, players wear a silver- dollar–sized chip to monitor their physiological indicators, movements, and also posture. Coaches leverage the data to customize a maintain regiment because that each player, every to boost each player's conditioning and variety of motion.

1. Camera analysis. throughout games, cameras monitor players' movements, and also software switch the photos to data points choose “contested rebounds (with an enemy within 3½ feet), catch-and-shoot success rates, live-ball turnovers and also the speed and distance football player travel. . . . The cameras detect the portion players walk, jog, run and also sprint, and also use those activities to determine the ‘mechanical load’ ~ above players' legs.” groups use the data come customize how players train on off days and how they can prevent injuries.40

A design of Evidence-Based Decision make (EBDM)

Figure 11.3 illustrates a model of EBDM. You have the right to see that evidence is used in three various ways: to do a decision, to educate a decision, and to support a decision.


FIGURE 11.3THE usage OF proof IN DECISION MAKINGIn each of the three scenarios following, the function of proof is increasingly diminished, until in the final scenario proof becomes an output of the decision process. Note additionally that the dangers increase v each prospering scenario.

“Evidence is offered to make a decision at any time the decision follows directly from the evidence.” because that example, if you wanted to acquisition a specific used vehicle (e.g., Toyota Prius) based on price and also color (e.g., red), friend would obtain data native the Internet and classified ads and then pick the seller offering the lowest-priced red Prius. “Evidence is provided to inform a decision whenever the decision process combines hard, objective facts with qualitative inputs, such as intuition or bargaining v stakeholders.” because that instance, in hiring new college graduates, target data around applicants' past experience, education, and also participation in student organizations would be relevant input come making a hiring decision. Nonetheless, spatu impressions garnered native interviews and also references would frequently be combined with the target data to make a last decision. These two offers of evidence are plainly positive and should be encouraged. The very same cannot it is in said around using proof to support a decision.

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“Evidence is used to support a decision anytime the evidence is gathered or modified because that the sole objective of lending legitimacy to a decision the has already been made.”41 This application of evidence has both optimistic and an unfavorable effects. On the optimistic side, manufactured proof can be provided to convince an outside audience the the organization is adhering to a sound food of activity in solution to a complicated and pass out decision context. This have the right to lead come confidence and also goodwill about how a firm is responding to environmental events. On the negative side, this practice can stifle employee involvement and also input due to the fact that people will certainly come to think that monitoring is walking to neglect evidence and just do what the wants. Friend know how discouraging this deserve to be if it ever happened come you. There are two takeaways around using proof to assistance a decision. First, this practice have to not constantly be avoided. Second, because this practice has actually both pros and cons, management needs to closely consider when it “might” be ideal to neglect disconfirming evidence and push its very own agenda or decisions.

Big Data: The next Frontier in EBDM

A recent study says that the digital world will reach 40 zettabytes (ZB) by 2020. This shows a 50 percent development in details from 2010. To placed this in perspective, there are 700,500,000,000,000,000,000 grains of sand top top the beaches around the world. Forty ZB is same to 57 times the variety of grains that sand.42 The ax big data reflects the huge quantity that data easily accessible for decision making. It likewise encompasses “the collection, sorting, and evaluation of the information, and also the methods to perform so.”43 The analysis of big data is supposed to revolutionize all aspects of ours lives, and many suppliers are not all set for this change. For example, a survey of 800 world by the American monitoring Association revealed that just 1 in 4 organizations has the ability to handle huge data.44

Experts calculation that there will be a require for 1.5 million specialists in data analytics over the following 5–10 years. Guess who is responding come this need? Universities. Much more and much more universities are offering majors in data analytics. These levels will train human being to usage quantitative and statistical devices to analyze and interpret large data. Execute you think the you space suited for this career?

Managers and also companies that successfully utilize large data, such as Kroger (see the Problem-Solving Application), space expected to acquire competitive advantage. Huge data creates worth in the following ways:

1. It can make information more transparent and also usable.

1. It permits organizations, choose Kroger, come measure and also collect all varieties of performance information, permitting them to implement initiatives to enhance productivity.

1. It allows an ext narrow segmentation of customers.

1. It can be offered to develop brand-new products.45

One trouble with huge data is that exclusive or sensitive information is an ext easily obtained, which method it can be leaked come others. This is precisely what NSA contractor Edward Snowden go in 2013. The leaked information about what the NSA was doing with large data.46

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problem addressing application

Kroger Uses large Data to enhance Customer Service and also Profits


Behind the scenes at this Kroger supermarket, computers, using infra-red cameras, counting shoppers in line to alert managers when come open new lanes and also even come predict future traffic.

Kroger is using large data from infrared cameras to mitigate the wait time in checkout lines. Kroger's system, which is described as QueVision, is operating in around 95 percent the its stores. Sales have increased due to the fact that the device was installed, reports The wall Street Journal.

How walk the device Work? The cameras detect human body heat and they are put “at the gateways and over cash registers at most of Kroger's approximately 2,400 stores. Paired through in-house software application that determines the number of lanes that need to be open, the technology has decreased the customer's mean wait time to 26 seconds. That compares through an median of four minutes before Kroger started installing the cameras in 2010.”

The data additionally uncovered some additional trends the led to enhanced sales. “The mechanism showed the there were more customers than Kroger realized buying a small number of items in the morning and also during lunchtime, and that the to express lanes were backing up. Therefore Kroger added 2,000 new express lanes to its shop nationwide, which the credits with growing the number of those small orders end the last 2 years.”47

YOUR call

1. Stop 1: What problem was Kroger trying to deal with by installing QueVision? based upon Figure 11.3, exactly how is Kroger making use of the data that is capturing?

1. Stop 2: What room the reasons of various spending patterns and also customer company responses?

1. Stop 3: What is your review of Kroger's use of QueVision? summary summarize ethical and also privacy issues around their customer business effort.

Chapter 11. Decision Making and Creativity

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MAJOR inquiry

How do I decide to decide?


Your decision-making layout reflects the manner in which friend perceive and comprehend information. Girlfriend will uncover it as an intake in the Integrative Framework. Knowing the 4 general formats of decision making will help you understand just how your managers and coworkers room making your decisions; and it will aid you know yourself that much better, too. The four decision-making layouts are directive, analytical, conceptual, and behavioral.

We make many decisions on a day-to-day basis—from what to wear, to what come eat, to what route to take it driving come school, to even if it is or not to confront a an unfavorable colleague. These decisions are guided by our decision-making style. A decision-making style is exactly how an individual perceives and comprehends stimuli and the basic manner in which that or she choose to respond to together information.48 A team that researchers developed a version of decision-making layouts that is based on the idea that formats vary along two different dimensions: worth orientation and tolerance because that ambiguity.49

Value Orientation and also Tolerance because that Ambiguity

Value orientation shows the extent to i m sorry an individual concentrates on one of two people task and technical involves or people and also social involves when do decisions. Some people, for instance, are an extremely task concentrated at work and do no pay much attention to civilization issues, whereas rather are just the opposite. The second dimension comes to a person's yongin for ambiguity.

This individual difference indicates the degree to i beg your pardon a person has a high need for framework or manage in his or she life. Some world desire a many structure in their resides (a low tolerance for ambiguity) and also find ambiguous situations stressful and also psychologically uncomfortable. In contrast, others carry out not have actually a high require for structure and can grow in uncertain instances (a high tolerance for ambiguity). Imagine the ambiguity confronted by mind surgeons once doing surgery. Ambiguous instances can energize world with a high yongin for ambiguity.

When the dimensions of value orientation and also tolerance for ambiguity room combined, they kind four styles of decision making: directive, analytical, conceptual, and behavioral (see figure 11.4).



SOURCE: based on discussion in A. J. Rowe and also R. O. Mason, managing with Style: A guide to Understanding, Assessing, and also Improving Decision do (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1987), 1–17.

The Directive Style: Action-Oriented Decision makers Who focus on Facts

People with a directive layout have a low tolerance for ambiguity and also are oriented towards task and technical pertains to when do decisions. They space efficient, logical, practical, and also systematic in their approach to solving problems. Human being with this style are activity oriented and decisive and like to focus on facts. In their search of speed and also results, however, these individuals tend to be autocratic, practice power and control, and also focus ~ above the brief run.

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Interestingly, a directive style seems well suited because that an air-traffic controller. Below is what Paul Rinaldi, president of the national Air web traffic Controllers Association, had actually to say about his decision-making layout to a reporter indigenous Fortune:

It's not so lot analytical together it is making a decision quickly and also sticking with it. . . . Friend can't ago out. You've constantly obtained to it is in taking into account the rate of the airplane, the characteristics, the climb rate, and also how rapid it's walk to react to your instructions. You're acquisition all the in and also processing the in a split second, hoping that it'll all job-related together. . . . Us can't do mistakes.50

The analysis Style: Careful and Slow Decision makers Who Like several Information

People through this style have a much higher tolerance for ambiguity and also tend come overanalyze a situation. They favor to consider much more information and alternatives than perform those v a directive style. Analytical people are mindful decision equipments who take longer to do decisions however who likewise respond fine to new or unsure situations. Castle can often be autocratic.


Elon Musk, on the right, is CEO that SpaceX, CEO that Tesla Motors, and also chair of SolarCity. Musk believes the SpaceX will commercialize an are travel. The is recognized to have both an analysis and theoretical style of decision making.

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Chinese customer Zhang Guangming is a good example of someone with an analytical style. BusinessWeek look at in the an exemplar of other potential vehicle buyers on the mainland. Zhang “has spent hrs poring over Chinese vehicle buff magazines, surfing net sites come mine data on various models, and trekking out to a dozen dealerships throughout Beijing.” as soon as he cleared up on a vehicle (either a Volkswagen Bora or a Hyundai Sonata sedan) the started all over again on acquiring the ideal deal.51

The conceptual Style: Intuitive Decision machines Who Involve rather in permanent Thinking

People with a conceptual style have a high tolerance for ambiguity and tend to focus on the civilization or social elements of a occupational situation. They take a large perspective to problem solving and like to consider many choices and future possibilities. Conceptual types take on a permanent perspective and rely top top intuition and discussions v others to gain information. They additionally are willing to take risks and are an excellent at finding creative solutions come problems. On the downside, however, a conceptual style deserve to foster one idealistic and indecisive strategy to decision making.

The behavior Style: extremely People-Oriented Decision Makers

This layout is the most civilization oriented the the 4 styles. People with this format work well v others and also enjoy social interactions in which opinions are openly exchanged. Behavioral varieties are supportive, space receptive to suggestions, display warmth, and prefer linguistic to created information. Return they prefer to hold meetings, world with this layout have a tendency to protect against conflict and also to be as well concerned about others. This have the right to lead behavioral types to take on a wishy-washy strategy to decision making and also to have a hard time saying no to others and to have an obstacle making complicated decisions.

Which layout Are You?

Research reveals the very couple of people have actually only one leading decision-making style. Rather, most supervisors have characteristics that loss into two or three styles. Studies also show that decision-making layouts vary through age, occupations, personality types, gender, and also countries.52 The adhering to self-assessment will boost your understanding around your decision making style.


What Is my Decision-Making Style?

Go to and complete Self-Assessment 11.2 to measure your decision-making style. Climate answer the complying with questions:

1. Do you agree with your results? Explain.

1. I m sorry of these styles is most essential in your function as a student and also in your existing job?

1. Based upon your price to concern 2, what might you carry out to modify her decision-making style?

© Dr. Alan J. Rowe, distinguished Emeritus Professor. Modification December 18, 1998. Reprinted v permission.

11.5 A roadway MAP TO honest DECISION MAKING

MAJOR concern

How can I evaluate the principles of mine decisions?

THE BIGGER snapshot

Sometimes friend may discover yourself confused around the principles of a situation. One method to gain some certainty is to graph the instance with a decision tree. A decision tree provides a frame for moral decision making.

In chapter 1 we discussed the prominence of ethics and the cultivation concern around the lack of moral behavior among business leaders and also students. Unfortunately, research reflects that many varieties of unethical behavior go unreported, and also unethical actions is negatively regarded employee engagement.53 while this state of affairs partially defines the i of regulations to control ethical behavior in corporate America, we believe we deserve to turn to an additional place come look for improvement—the decision-making procedure people engage in. Honest acts at some point involve individual or group decisions. It for this reason is important to take into consideration the issue of ethical decision making. Harvard company School Professor Constance Bagley suggests that a decision tree can help managers to make more ethical decisions.54

A decision tree is a graphical depiction of the process underlying decisions, and it reflects the aftermath of making assorted choices. Decision trees are provided to help in decision making. You deserve to follow Bagley's decision tree, displayed in figure 11.5, by questioning the following questions:

1. Is the proposed activity legal? This may seem like common sense, but you would certainly be surprised just how some managers and companies skip this question. For example, Synthes, a medical an equipment maker, decided to industry Norian XR, a cement that possibly turns right into bone when injected right into humans, because that spine surgeries in spite of being told not to by the Food and Drug Administration. At the very least five people died top top the operating table after gift injected with Norian.55


The 2013 structure collapse in Rana Plaza in Bangladesh is the largest garment manufacturing facility accident in history. Sadly, 1,129 civilization died in this tragedy. This tragedy might have been prevented by far better management.

1. If “yes,” go the proposed activity maximize shareholder value? A decision maximizes shareholder value once it results in a more favorable financial place (e.g., increased profits) for an organization. Even if it is or not an activity maximizes shareholder value, the decision tree mirrors that supervisors still require to think about the honest implications the the decision or action.

1. If “yes,” is the proposed activity ethical? The answer come this inquiry is based on considering the positive result of the activity on an organization's other vital constituents (customers, employees, the community, the environment, suppliers) against the benefit to the shareholders. Because that example, Bangladesh manufacturing facility owners bullied employees to job-related in a structure despite warnings from engineers that one exterior crack made that unsafe. They go this the end of fear of shedding business, a an unfavorable impact top top shareholder value.

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As you might know, the building collapsed, death 1,129 people. In this case, the decision to pressure workers to go into the structure may have benefited the shareholders, yet it was really bad because that employees and also the country.56 Ethically, then, supervisors should not have motivated workers to enter the building, obviously.

1. If “no,” would certainly it be moral not to take the propose action? If an activity would not directly benefit shareholders, you need to think about whether it would be honest not to take the suggest action.

Returning come the example of factory owners bullying workers to go into a damaged structure in Bangladesh, this decision to be harmful to various other stakeholders—employees and the country. Thus, the moral conclusion might be to ask employees to go into the structure after fixing the structural problems and also to ask client for some leeway in filling orders.



It is important to save in mind that the decision tree cannot provide a rapid formula that managers and organizations can use to evaluate every honest question. Moral decision make is not always clear-cut and is affected by cross-cultural differences. Establishments are motivated to conduct principles training and to rise awareness around cross-cultural worries when the work involves civilization with mixed cultural backgrounds.57 the said, the decision tree does administer a frame for considering the trade-offs between managerial and corporate actions and managerial and corporate ethics. Shot using this decision tree the next time girlfriend are faced with a significant ethical concern or problem.


MAJOR concern

What are the pros and also cons of team decision making and also the assorted problem-solving tools?


You've probably seen both an excellent and negative come out of a team decision. OB confirms that team decisions have the right to lead to blended results. That identifies five potential advantages and four disadvantages. Knowing them eight you with info to help you maximize the advantages and minimize the disadvantages. In this ar you will discover contingency referrals for involving teams in decision making and also three advantageous group problem-solving techniques: brainstorming, the nominal group technique, and computer-aided decision making.

The famous press and movies celebrate individual heroes prefer Robert Downey Jr. (aka Tony Stark) in iron Man. Stark make his own decisions in conserving the earth from ruin. Most managers, however, work-related with others and also make decision by including others. Although teams don't typically make as effective decisions as the ideal individual acting alone, research study reveals that teams make much better decisions 보다 most individuals acting alone.58 It thus is valuable for you come learn about decision do in groups.

Advantages and also Disadvantages of group Decision Making

We frequently have to decide whether to do a decision alone or come consult through others. The complying with list of benefits and defect can assist you decide what come do.

Advantages The adhering to five benefits are most likely to be uncovered when the team has suffer with the problem at hand and also when the is varied in state of attributes like personalities, gender, attitudes, and also experience.59

1. Greater swimming pool of knowledge. A group possesses an ext information and also knowledge 보다 one individual acting alone.

1. Different ideologies to a problem. individuals with different backgrounds and experiences carry varied perspectives to diagnosing and also solving problems.

1. Greater commitment come a decision. Participation and a voice in decision do are more likely to an outcome in commitment come a decision. This consequently leads team members to accept and also feel responsible because that implementing a proposed solution.

1. Better understanding of decision rationale. Participating in a decision increases team members' understanding around why a decision is gift made and also what must occur to carry out it. This consequently reduces miscommunication among people.

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1. More visible duty modeling. much less experienced