We human beings are strange creatures. Over there is no doubt that our bodies progressed by natural selection just as other animals' did. Yet we differ indigenous all other creatures in many ways. For a begin we speak. We think ourselves to be the many intelligent species on the planet. We space extraordinarily widespread and extremely flexible in our ways of make a living. We wage wars, think in religions, bury our dead and get embarrassed about sex. Us watch television, journey cars and eat ice cream. Us have had actually such a devastating influence upon the ecosystems that our planet that we show up to be in peril of ruining everything on i beg your pardon our resides depend. One of the troubles of being a person is the it is rather difficult to look at at human beings with one unprejudiced eye.

    on the one hand, we room obviously pets comparable with any type of others. We have lungs, hearts and also brains made of living cells; we eat and breathe and reproduce. Darwin's concept of advancement by natural choice can successfully describe how we, in addition to the remainder of life ~ above this planet, became here, and why we all re-superstructure so many characteristics. ~ above the various other hand, us behave quite in different ways from various other animals. Now that biology has so successfully explained much of our similarity with various other creatures we need to ask opposing question. What provides us so different? can it it is in our premium intelligence, our consciousness, ours language, or what?

    A usual answer is the we are simply more intelligent than any type of other species. However the concept of intelligence is incredibly slippery, with interminable arguments around how to define it, how to measure it, and to what degree it is inherited. Research study in artificial intelligence (AI) has listed some nice surprises for those who believed they knew what makes person intelligence for this reason special.

    In the early on days that AI, researchers thought that if they could teach a computer to beat chess they would have reproduced among the highest forms of human intelligence. In those job the idea the a computer system could ever play well, allow alone beat a grand Master, was unthinkable. However now many home computers come with passable chess programmes currently installed, and also in 1997 the regime Deep Blue beat people Champion Garry Kasparov, ending unquestioned human supremacy at the game. Computers may no play chess in the same way as humans, however their success shows how wrong we have the right to be around intelligence. Clearly, what we believed were human being beings' most special capabilities may not be.

    quite the opposite walk for some apparently rather unintelligent things like cleaning the house, digging the garden or make a cup of tea. Time and again AI researchers have actually tried to develop robots to lug out such tasks and been defeated. The an initial problem is that the tasks all need vision. Over there is a famous (though maybe apocryphal) story around Marvin Minsky at MIT (the Massachusetts institute of Technology) that he once gave his graduate college student the problem of vision together a summer project. Years later the problem of computer vision is still simply that — a problem. We humans deserve to see therefore effortlessly that we cannot begin to imagine how complex the procedure has come be. And in any type of case, this kind of knowledge cannot distinguish us indigenous other animals because they have the right to see too.

    If knowledge does not provide simple answers maybe consciousness might. Many people believe that person consciousness is unique and is responsible for making united state human. Yet scientists cannot even specify the hatchet `consciousness'. Everyone knows what their very own consciousness is like but they can not share that expertise with anyone else. This troublesome reality — the subjectivity of consciousness — may describe why for most of this century the whole topic of awareness was more or much less banned from scientific discussion. Now at last it has end up being fashionable again, but scientists and also philosophers cannot even agree top top what one explanation the consciousness would look like. Some say the the `Hard Problem' of subjectivity is quite various from any other scientific problem and needs a totally new kind that solution, when others are sure that when we completely understand mind function and behaviour the problem of awareness will have disappeared.

    some people think in the visibility of a human being soul or soul that transcends the physical brain and explains human uniqueness. V the decline in spiritual belief fewer and fewer human being intellectually accept that view, yet most of us proceed to think that ourselves as a small conscious `me' within our brain; a `me' who sees the world, makes the decisions, directs the actions and also has obligation for them.

    as we shall check out later, this view has to be wrong. Whatever the mind is doing the does not seem to need assist from one extra, magical self. Miscellaneous parts that the mind carry on your tasks separately of each other and also countless various things are always going on at once. We might feel together though there is a central place inside our top in come which the emotion come and also from which us consciously do the decisions. However this place simply does not exist. Clearly, something is an extremely wrong with our plain view the our aware selves. Native this confused viewpoint us cannot say with certainty that other animals are not conscious, nor that consciousness is what provides us unique. So what does?

What makes us different?

The thesis of this book is that what renders us different is our capacity to imitate.

    Imitation comes naturally to united state humans. Have actually you ever before sat and blinked, or waved, or `goo gooed', or also just smiled, in ~ a baby? What happens? really often castle blink too, or wave, or smile back at you. We execute it for this reason easily, also as an infant. Us copy each other all the time. Prefer seeing, it comes so effortlessly that we hardly think about it. We definitely do no think the it as being something very clever. Yet, together we chandelier see, it is fantastically clever.

    Certainly, other animals do no take naturally to it. Blink, or wave, or smile at your dog or cat and also what happens? She can purr, wag she tail, twitch, or go away, however you can be pretty sure she will not imitate you. You deserve to teach a cat, or rat, come beg neatly for that food through progressively rewarding it, however you cannot teach that by demonstrating the trick you yourself -- nor can one more cat or rat. Years of thorough research on animal imitation has led to the conclusion that it is incredibly rare (I shall return to this in thing 4). Despite we may think of mom cats as teaching your kittens to hunt, or groom, or use the cat door, they do not carry out it through demonstration or imitation. Parent birds `teach' their babies come fly more by pushing them the end of the nest and giving lock the possibility to shot it 보다 by demonstrating the required skills for them to copy.

    there is a one-of-a-kind appeal to stories of pets copying person behaviour, and also pet owners are fond of such tales. I review on the Internet about a cat who learned to do the washing up the toilet and soon teach a second cat the exact same trick. Now the 2 of castle sit with each other on the cistern flushing away. A an ext reliable anecdote was told by Diana Reiss, a psychologist at Rutgers University. She works through bottlenose dolphins, who are recognized to be able to copy vocal sounds and also artificial whistles, as well as straightforward actions (Bauer and Johnson 1994; Reiss and McCowan 1993). She trained the dolphins by giving them fish together a price and likewise by a `time out' procedure because that punishment. If they go the wrong point she would certainly walk far from the water's edge and also wait because that one minute prior to returning come the pool. One day she threw a fish to one of the dolphins however had by chance left on some spiky bits of fin. Automatically the dolphin turned, swam away, and waited because that a minute at the various other side the the pool.

    that story touched me due to the fact that I can not assist thinking that the dolphin as knowledge the action, as having actually intelligence and also consciousness and also intentionality like ours. Yet we can not even specify these things, allow alone be sure that the dolphin was utilizing them in this evident act the reciprocation. What we deserve to see is that it imitated Dr Reiss in an appropriate way. We are so oblivious to the cleverness that imitation that we do not even notice how rare it is in other animals and also how regularly we perform it ourselves.

    Perhaps an ext telling is the we carry out not have separate words because that radically various kinds the learning. We use the exact same word `learning' for simple association or `classical conditioning' (which practically all pets can do), for learning by trial and also error or `operant conditioning' (which many pets can do), and also for learning by imitation (which virtually none have the right to do). I want to argue the the supreme ease through which us are capable of imitation, has actually blinded us to this an easy fact — that imitation is what makes us special.

Imitation and also the meme

as soon as you imitate someone else, something is pass on. This `something' have the right to then be passed top top again, and also again, and so take on a life that its own. Us might call this point an idea, one instruction, a behaviour, a item of information ... However if we are going to research it we shall need to give it a name.

    Fortunately, there is a name. The is the `meme'.

    The term `meme' an initial appeared in 1976, in Richard Dawkins's best-selling book The Selfish Gene. In that publication Dawkins, one Oxford zoologist, popularised the progressively influential watch that development is ideal understood in terms of the competition in between genes. Previously in the twenty century, biologists had blithely talked about evolution emerging for the `good that the species' without worrying about the precise mechanisms involved, but in the 1960s serious difficulties with this view began to it is in recognised (Williams 1966). Because that example, if a group of organisms every act for the good of the team then one individual that does no can quickly exploit the rest. He will certainly then leave more descendants who in turn do no act because that the group, and also the group benefit will be lost. On the more contemporary `gene's eye view', evolution may appear to continue in the understanding of the individual, or because that the good of the species, yet in fact it is all moved by the competition between genes. This new viewpoint detailed a much an ext powerful understanding of evolution and also has concerned be well-known as `selfish-gene theory'.

    We should be for sure clear around what `selfish' method in this context. The does not average genes because that selfishness. Together genes would incline your carriers to act selfishly and that is something fairly different. The ax `selfish' here means that the genes act only for themselves; their only interest is their very own replication; all they want is to be passed on to the next generation. Of course, genes execute not `want' or have intends or intentions in the same means as people do; they are only chemical indict that deserve to be copied. So as soon as I to speak they `want', or space `selfish' ns am utilizing a shorthand, yet this shorthand is essential to avoid prolonged explanations. It will not lead united state astray if we remember that gene either space or room not effective at gaining passed on right into the next generation. For this reason the shorthand `genes want x' can constantly be spelled out together `genes that carry out x are an ext likely to it is in passed on'. This is the only power they have — replicator power. And also it is in this sense that they space selfish.

    Dawkins also introduced the important difference between `replicators' and their `vehicles'. A replicator is noþeles of which duplicates are made, including `active replicators' whose nature affects the chances of your being duplicated again. A car is the entity that interacts through the environment, which is why Hull (1988a) prefers the term `interactors' because that a comparable idea. Vehicles or interactors bring the replicators about inside them and protect them. The original replicator to be presumably a basic self-copying molecule in the primeval soup, but our most familiar replicator currently is DNA. That is vehicles space organisms and groups of biology that communicate with each other as castle live the end their lives in the seas or the air, the forests or fields. Genes are the selfish replicators the drive the evolution of the organic world right here on earth but Dawkins believes over there is a more fundamental principle in ~ work. He suggested that wherever it arises, everywhere in the universe, `all life evolves by the differential survive of replicating entities' (1976, p. 192). This is the structure for the idea of universal Darwinism; the applications of Darwinian thinking means beyond the boundaries of organic evolution.

    at the very end that the book he asked an obvious, if provocative, question. Space there any other replicators on our planet? The answer, the claimed, is `Yes'. Staring united state in the face, although tho drifting clumsily about in that is primeval soup of culture, is another replicator — a unit of imitation.

We require a surname for the new replicator, a noun that conveys the idea of a unit of social transmission, or a unit that imitation. `Mimeme' originates from a perfect Greek root, but I desire a monosyllable the sounds a little like `gene'. Ns hope my classicist friends will certainly forgive me if i abbreviate mimeme come meme.

    as examples, he argued `tunes, ideas, catch-phrases, apparel fashions, ways of make pots or of building arches'. He mentioned scientific concepts that catch on and propagate themselves about the world by jumping from brain to brain. That wrote around religions as teams of memes through a high survive value, infecting entirety societies with belief in a God or one afterlife. The talked around fashions in dress or diet, and about ceremonies, customs and technologies — every one of which are spread by one human copying another. Memes space stored in human being brains (or publications or inventions) and passed on through imitation.

    In a couple of pages, Dawkins set the foundations for expertise the evolution of memes. He disputed their propagation by jumping from mind to brain, likened castle to helminth infecting a host, treated them together physically realised life structures, and showed just how mutually assisting memes will certainly gang with each other in groups just as genes do. Most importantly, he treated the meme together a replicator in its own right. The complained that countless of his colleagues appeared unable to accept the idea that memes would spread out for their own benefit, independently of any benefit come the genes. `In the last analysis they wish always to go back to "biological advantage"' to answer questions around human behaviour. Yes, the agreed, we got our brain for organic (genetic) reasons yet now we have actually them a brand-new replicator has been unleashed. `Once this brand-new evolution begins, it will certainly in no necessary sense be subservient come the old' (Dawkins 1976, pp. 193-4). In various other words, memetic development can currently take turn off without regard to its impacts on the genes.

    If Dawkins is ideal then person life is permeated through and through with memes and also their consequences. Every little thing you have actually learned by imitation native someone else is a meme. But we should be clear what is supposed by the word `imitation', since our entirety understanding that memetics depends on it. Dawkins stated that mim jump native `brain to mind via a procedure which, in the wide sense, can be referred to as imitation' (1976, p. 192). I will additionally use the hatchet `imitation' in the large sense. Therefore if, because that example, a girlfriend tells you a story and you mental the gist and pass it on to someone else then the counts as imitation. You have actually not specifically imitated your friend's every action and word, however something (the gist that the story) has actually been replicated from she to you and also then ~ above to who else. This is the `broad sense' in which we must recognize the term `imitation'. If in doubt, remember that something must have been copied.

    everything that is pass from person to human in this way is a meme. This consists of all the words in your vocabulary, the story you know, the skills and behavior you have actually picked increase from others and also the gamings you favor to play. It consists of the song you sing and also the rule you obey. So, because that example, at any time you drive on the left (or the right!), eat curry with lager or pizza and also coke, whistle the theme song from neighbours or also shake hands, you space dealing in memes. Each of these memes has advanced in its own unique means with its very own history, yet each of castle is using your plot to get itself copied.

    take it the song `Happy birthday to You'. Millions of world — more than likely thousands that millions of world the world over — recognize this tune. Indeed, ns only have to write under those 4 words to have actually a pretty an excellent idea the you may soon start humming it come yourself. Those words influence you, more than likely quite without any conscious intentionally on her part, by stirring increase a storage you currently possess. And where did the come from? Like numerous other world you have gained it by imitation. Something, some sort of information, some sort of instruction, has become lodged in all those brain so that currently we all perform the exact same thing at birthday parties. That something is what we contact the meme.

    Memes spread out themselves around indiscriminately there is no regard to even if it is they space useful, neutral, or positive harmful come us. A brilliant brand-new scientific idea, or a technological invention, may spread due to the fact that of the usefulness. A song choose Jingle Bells may spread because it sound OK, despite it is not seriously useful and also can certainly get on her nerves. However some memes space positively harmful — choose chain letters and also pyramid selling, new methods the fraud and false doctrines, ineffective slimming diets and dangerous clinical `cures'. The course, the memes do not care; they are selfish like genes and will merely spread if castle can.

    Remember the the exact same shorthand uses to memes as to genes. We can say that memes room `selfish', the they `do no care', that they `want' come propagate themselves, and also so on, when all we mean is that effective memes are the people that get copied and also spread, while unsuccessful ones carry out not. This is the feeling in which mim `want' to get copied, `want' friend to pass them on and `do not care' what that way to you or her genes.

    This is the power behind the idea the memes. To begin to think memetically we need to make a giant flip in ours minds just as biologists had to do once taking on the idea the the selfish gene. Instead of thinking of our ideas as our very own creations, and as functioning for us, we need to think the them together autonomous selfish memes, working only to get themselves copied. Us humans, because of our strength of imitation, have become just the physical `hosts' needed for the memes to acquire around. This is how the people looks from a `meme's eye view'.

picture fear

This is a scary idea indeed. And perhaps the is why words `meme' is so regularly written with inverted commas around it, together though come apologise for using it. Ns have also seen eminent lecturers raise both hands and also tweak them over their ear when forced to to speak `meme' out loud. Gradually, the word has actually become much more generally known, and has also been added to the Oxford English Dictionary. There are conversation groups and a Journalof Memetics on the Internet, and the idea almost seems to have got a cult complying with in cyberspace. However in academia it has not however been for this reason successful. A perusal of several of the finest recent books on person origins, the evolution of language and also evolutionary psychology reflects that words does not show up at every in many of them (`meme' is not in the indexes that Barkow et al. 1992; Diamond 1997; Dunbar 1996; Mithen 1996; Pinker 1994; mark Ridley 1996; Tudge 1995; Wills 1993; light 1994). The idea of mim seems incredibly relevant to these disciplines, and I desire to argue the it is time for us to take on board the concept of a 2nd replicator at work in human being life and evolution.

    one of the troubles with the idea of memes is that it strikes at our deepest assumptions about who us are and why we space here. This is constantly happening in science. Before Copernicus and Galileo, people believed they lived at the centre of the world in a world created specifically for lock by God. Gradually, we had to accept not only that the sunlight does not revolve approximately the earth, however that us live on some minor little planet in an ordinary galaxy in a substantial universe of other galaxies.

    A hundred and also forty years earlier Darwin's theory of development by natural selection provided the first plausible device for evolution without a designer. People's view of their very own origin readjusted from the biblical story that special development in the picture of God, come an pet descended native an apelike ancestor — a vast leap indeed, and also one that led to much ridicule and fanatical opposition to Darwin. Tho — we have actually all coped with that leap and come to accept that we are animals created through evolution. However, if memetics is valid, we will have to make another vast leap in agree a comparable evolutionary device for the origin of ours minds and our selves.

* * *

What will identify whether the concept of mim is worth having or not? Although thinkers of scientific research argue over what provides a scientific theory valid, there are at the very least two generally agreed criteria, and also I will usage these in judging memetics. First, a theory must be able to explain things better than its rival theories; more economically or more comprehensively. And also second, that must lead to testable guess that rotate out to be correct. Ideally, those predictions have to be unanticipated ones — things that nobody would have actually looked because that if they were not starting from a concept of memetics.

    My aim in this book is to present that many aspects of human being nature are explained far far better by a concept of memetics than by any rival concept yet available. The theory starts only with one basic mechanism — the competition in between memes to get into human being brains and also be passed on again. Native this, it offers rise to explanations because that such varied phenomena together the development of the huge human brain, the beginnings of language, our tendency, come talk and also think also much, person altruism, and the advancement of the Internet. Looked at v the brand-new lens that the memes, human beings look fairly different.

    Is the new way better? It appears obviously so come me, yet I expect that many people will disagree. This is whereby the guess come in. I shall try to be as clear as I have the right to in deriving predictions and also showing how they follow from memetic theory. I might speculate and even, at times, leap wildly beyond the evidence, yet as lengthy as the speculations can be tested then they can be helpful. In the end, the success or failure of this predictions will decide whether mim are just a meaningless metaphor or the grand new unifying concept we must understand person nature.

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